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Contents

  1. Introduction
    1. Latest Version
    2. Disclaimer
    3. Contributors
  2. Chapter 1. What is LVM?
  3. Chapter 2. What is Logical Volume Management?
    1. Why would I want it?
    2. Benefits of Logical Volume Management on a Small System
    3. Benefits of Logical Volume Management on a Large System
  4. Chapter 3. Anatomy of LVM
    1. Volume Group (VG)
    2. Physical Volume (PV)
    3. Logical Volume (LV)
    4. Physical Extent (PE)
    5. Logical Extent (LE)
    6. Tying it All Together
    7. Mapping Modes (linear/striped)
    8. Snapshots
  5. Chapter 4. Frequently Asked Questions
    1. LVM 2 FAQ
    2. LVM 1 FAQ
  6. Chapter 5. Acquiring LVM
    1. 5.1. Download the source
    2. 5.2. Download the development source via CVS
    3. 5.3. Before You Begin
    4. 5.4. Initial Setup
    5. 5.5. Checking Out Source Code
    6. 5.6. Code Updates
    7. 5.7. Starting a Project
    8. 5.8. Hacking the Code
    9. 5.9. Conflicts
    10. Chapter 6. Building the kernel modules
    11. 6.1. Building the device-mapper module
    12. 6.2. Build the LVM 1 kernel module
      1. 6.2.1. Building a patch for your kernel
      2. 6.2.2. Building the LVM module for Linux 2.2.17+
      3. 6.2.3. Building the LVM modules for Linux 2.4
      4. 6.2.4. Checking the proc file system
    13. Chapter 7. LVM 1 Boot time scripts
    14. 7.1. Caldera
    15. 7.2. Debian
    16. 7.3. Mandrake
    17. 7.4. Redhat
    18. 7.5. Slackware
    19. 7.6. SuSE
    20. Chapter 8. LVM 2 Boot Time Scripts
    21. Chapter 9. Building LVM from the Source
    22. 9.1. Make LVM library and tools
    23. 9.2. Install LVM library and tools
    24. 9.3. Removing LVM library and tools
    25. Chapter 10. Transitioning from previous versions of LVM to LVM 1.0.8
    26. 10.1. Upgrading to LVM 1.0.8 with a non-LVM root partition
    27. 10.2. Upgrading to LVM 1.0.8 with an LVM root partition and initrd
    28. Chapter 11. Common Tasks
    29. 11.1. Initializing disks or disk partitions
    30. 11.2. Creating a volume group
    31. 11.3. Activating a volume group
    32. 11.4. Removing a volume group
    33. 11.5. Adding physical volumes to a volume group
    34. 11.6. Removing physical volumes from a volume group
    35. 11.7. Creating a logical volume
    36. 11.8. Removing a logical volume
    37. 11.9. Extending a logical volume
    38. 11.10. Reducing a logical volume
    39. 11.11. Migrating data off of a physical volume
    40. Chapter 12. Disk partitioning
    41. 12.1. Multiple partitions on the same disk
    42. 12.2. Sun disk labels
    43. Chapter 13. Recipes
    44. 13.1. Setting up LVM on three SCSI disks
      1. 13.1.1. Preparing the disks
      2. 13.1.2. Setup a Volume Group
      3. 13.1.3. Creating the Logical Volume
      4. 13.1.4. Create the File System
      5. 13.1.5. Test the File System
    45. 13.2. Setting up LVM on three SCSI disks with striping
      1. 13.2.1. Preparing the disk partitions
      2. 13.2.2. Setup a Volume Group
      3. 13.2.3. Creating the Logical Volume
      4. 13.2.4. Create the File System
      5. 13.2.5. Test the File System
    46. 13.3. Add a new disk to a multi-disk SCSI system
      1. 13.3.1. Current situation
      2. 13.3.2. Prepare the disk partitions
      3. 13.3.3. Add the new disks to the volume groups
      4. 13.3.4. Extend the file systems
      5. 13.3.5. Remount the extended volumes
    47. 13.4. Taking a Backup Using Snapshots
      1. 13.4.1. Create the snapshot volume
      2. 13.4.2. Mount the snapshot volume
      3. 13.4.3. Do the backup
      4. 13.4.4. Remove the snapshot
    48. 13.5. Removing an Old Disk
      1. 13.5.1. Distributing Old Extents to Existing Disks in Volume Group
        1. 13.5.1.1. Remove the unused disk
      2. 13.5.2. Distributing Old Extents to a New Replacement Disk
        1. 13.5.2.1. Prepare the disk
        2. 13.5.2.2. Add it to the volume group
        3. 13.5.2.3. Move the data
        4. 13.5.2.4. Remove the unused disk
    49. 13.6. Moving a volume group to another system
      1. 13.6.1. Unmount the file system
      2. 13.6.2. Mark the volume group inactive
      3. 13.6.3. Export the volume group
      4. 13.6.4. Import the volume group
      5. 13.6.5. Activate the volume group
      6. 13.6.6. Mount the file system
    50. 13.7. Splitting a volume group
      1. 13.7.1. Determine free space
      2. 13.7.2. Move data off the disks to be used
      3. 13.7.3. Create the new volume group
      4. 13.7.4. Remove remaining volume
      5. 13.7.5. Create new logical volume
      6. 13.7.6. Make a file system on the volume
      7. 13.7.7. Mount the new volume
    51. 13.8. Converting a root filesystem to LVM 1
      1. 13.8.1. Boot single user
      2. 13.8.2. Run Parted
      3. 13.8.3. Reboot
      4. 13.8.4. Verify kernel config options
      5. 13.8.5. Adjust partition type
      6. 13.8.6. Set up LVM 1 for the new scheme
      7. 13.8.7. Create the Filesystem
      8. 13.8.8. Update /etc/fstab
      9. 13.8.9. Create an LVM 1 initial RAM disk
      10. 13.8.10. Update /etc/lilo.conf
      11. 13.8.11. Run LILO to write the new boot sector
      12. 13.8.12. Reboot to lvm
      13. 13.8.13. Add remainder of disk
    52. 13.9. Recover physical volume metadata
    53. Appendix A. Dangerous Operations
    54. A.1. Restoring the VG UUIDs using uuid_fixer
    55. A.2. Sharing LVM volumes
    56. Appendix B. Reporting Errors and Bugs
    57. Appendix C. Contact and Links
    58. C.1. Mail lists
    59. C.2. Links
    60. Appendix D. GNU Free Documentation License
    61. D.1. PREAMBLE
    62. D.2. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
    63. D.3. VERBATIM COPYING
    64. D.4. COPYING IN QUANTITY
    65. D.5. MODIFICATIONS
    66. D.6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
    67. D.7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
    68. D.8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
    69. D.9. TRANSLATION
    70. D.10. TERMINATION
    71. D.11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
    72. D.12. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
LVM HOWTO

AJ Lewis

vortechs2000(at)gmail.com

Copyright © 2002-2003 Sistina Software, Inc

Copyright © 2004-2005 Red Hat, Inc

Copyright © 2005-2006 Terrascale Technologies, Inc

Copyright © 2006 Rackable Systems, Inc

Revision History

Revision 0.19

2006-11-27

Revised by: ajl

Clarified full snapshot conditions in [#snapshotintro [#snapshotintro Section 3.8]] and [#snapbackcreate [#snapbackcreate Section 13.4.1]] and added a note about resizing the origin of a snapshot; Fixed Rackable copyright; Fixed e-mail address

Revision 0.18

2006-11-27

Revised by: ajl

Clarify whole disk usage in [#initdisks [#initdisks Section 11.1]]; Updated copyright; Updated e-mail address

Revision 0.17

2005-10-03

Revised by: ajl

Added FAQ entry for max size of LVs in LVM2; Did some cleanup of "Recover physical volume metadata" section; Updated e-mail address

Revision 0.16

2005-07-15

Revised by: ajl

Added lvm2 boot-time scripts info; Added "Recover physical volume metadata" section - thanks to Maximilian Attems for the patch

Revision 0.15

2005-06-09

Revised by: ajl

Removed references to xfs_freeze - it is no longer needed; Updated snapshots subsection in Anatomy of LVM section; Added a couple entries to the LVM2 FAQ; Fixed a couple typos

Revision 0.14

2004-10-06

Revised by: ajl

Added reference to lvm2_createinitrd in source tree; Adjusted lvcreate example slightly; Added 'vgchange -ay' in 'Moving a volume group to another system' recipe

Revision 0.13

2004-08-16

Revised by: ajl

Clarify symlink farm description; Fix dm control device major number; Remove /boot from vg in small lvm setup example; Add notes about /boot and / on LVM; Remove outdated link;

Revision 0.12

2004-06-07

Revised by: ajl

Updated LVM2 FAQ entries

Revision 0.11

2004-05-03

Revised by: ajl

Updated LVM2 FAQ entries

Revision 0.10

2004-04-22

Revised by: ajl

removed -print0 from find command after receiving reports that it doesn't work

Revision 0.9

2004-04-16

Revised by: ajl

Added -print0 to find command before piping it to cpio; Changed vgimport command line for LVM 2; Added ext3 to the ext2 resize section; Updated FAQ; Updated Links section

Revision 0.8

2004-02-25

Revised by: ajl

Updated CVS locations and FTP links; Added section on extending a JFS filesystem; Fixed typos - Ran aspell against document

Revision 0.7

2004-02-16

Revised by: ajl

Updated to include LVM 2 and device mapper information; Updated email addresses; Updated copyright; Added FAQ section; Added document license; Updated to docbook 4.2

Revision 0.6

2003-12-09

Revised by: ajl

Updated for LVM 1.0.8; fixed broken link; Clarified redhat init script section;

Revision 0.5

2003-02-10

Revised by: ajl

Updated Redhat initscript information for 7.0 and above; Added information on removing a partition table from a disk if pvcreate fails; Default PE size is 32MB now; Updated method for snapshotting under XFS.

Revision 0.4

2002-12-16

Revised by: ajl

Updated for LVM 1.0.6

Revision 0.3

2002-09-16

Revised by: ajl

removed example pvmove from Command Operations section - we now just point to the more detailed recipe on pvmove that contains various warnings and such

Revision 0.2

2002-09-11

Revised by: ajl

Updated for LVM 1.0.5 and converted to DocBook XML 4.1.2.

Revision 0.1

2002-04-28

Revised by: gf

Initial conversion from Sistina's LaTeX source and import to tLDP in LinuxDoc format.

This document describes how to build, install, and configure LVM for Linux. A basic description of LVM is also included. This version of the HowTo is for LVM 2 with device-mapper, as well as LVM 1.0.8.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License". note.gif This document is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY, either expressed or implied. While every effort has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information documented herein, the author(s)/editor(s)/maintainer(s)/contributor(s) assumes NO RESPONSIBILITY for any errors, or for any damages, direct or consequential, as a result of the use of the information documented herein.

1. Introduction

This is an attempt to collect everything needed to know to get LVM up and running. The entire process of getting, compiling, installing, and setting up LVM will be covered. Pointers to LVM configurations that have been tested with will also be included. This version of the HowTo is for LVM 2 with device-mapper and LVM 1.0.8.

All previous versions of LVM are considered obsolete and are only kept for historical reasons. This document makes no attempt to explain or describe the workings or use of those versions.

1.1. Latest Version

We will keep the latest version of this HowTo in the CVS with the other LDP Howtos. You can get it by checking out LDP/howto/docbook/LVM-HOWTO.xml from the tLDP CVS server. You should always be able to get a human readable version of this HowTo from the [http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/LVM-HOWTO.html http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/LVM-HOWTO.html ]

1.2. Disclaimer

This document is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY, either expressed or implied. While every effort has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information documented herein, the author(s)/editor(s)/maintainer(s)/contributor(s) assumes NO RESPONSIBILITY for any errors, or for any damages, direct or consequential, as a result of the use of the information documented herein.

1.3. Contributors

List of everyone who has put words into this file.

Please notify the HowTo maintainer if you believe you should be listed above.


2. Chapter 1. What is LVM?

LVM is a Logical Volume Manager for the Linux operating system. There are now two version of LVM for Linux:

  • LVM 2 - The latest and greatest version of LVM for Linux.LVM 2 is almost completely backward compatible with volumes created with LVM 1. The exception to this is snapshots (You must remove snapshot volumes before upgrading to LVM 2)LVM 2 uses the device mapper kernel driver. Device mapper support is in the 2.6 kernel tree and there are patches available for current 2.4 kernels.
  • LVM 1 - The version that is in the 2.4 series kernel,LVM 1 is a mature product that has been considered stable for a couple of years. The kernel driver for LVM 1 is included in the 2.4 series kernels, but this does not mean that your 2.4.x kernel is up to date with the latest version of LVM. Look at the [ftp://ftp.sistina.com/pub/LVM/1.0/README README] for the latest information about which kernels have the current code in them.


3. Chapter 2. What is Logical Volume Management?

Logical volume management provides a higher-level view of the disk storage on a computer system than the traditional view of disks and partitions. This gives the system administrator much more flexibility in allocating storage to applications and users.

Storage volumes created under the control of the logical volume manager can be resized and moved around almost at will, although this may need some upgrading of file system tools.

The logical volume manager also allows management of storage volumes in user-defined groups, allowing the system administrator to deal with sensibly named volume groups such as "development" and "sales" rather than physical disk names such as "sda" and "sdb".

3.1. Why would I want it?

Logical volume management is traditionally associated with large installations containing many disks but it is equally suited to small systems with a single disk or maybe two.


3.2. Benefits of Logical Volume Management on a Small System

One of the difficult decisions facing a new user installing Linux for the first time is how to partition the disk drive. The need to estimate just how much space is likely to be needed for system files and user files makes the installation more complex than is necessary and some users simply opt to put all their data into one large partition in an attempt to avoid the issue.

Once the user has guessed how much space is needed for /home /usr / (or has let the installation program do it) then is quite common for one of these partitions to fill up even if there is plenty of disk space in one of the other partitions.

With logical volume management, the whole disk would be allocated to a single volume group and logical volumes created to hold the / /usr and /home file systems. If, for example the /home logical volume later filled up but there was still space available on /usr then it would be possible to shrink /usr by a few megabytes and reallocate that space to /home.

Another alternative would be to allocate minimal amounts of space for each logical volume and leave some of the disk unallocated. Then, when the partitions start to fill up, they can be expanded as necessary.

As an example: Joe buys a PC with an 8.4 Gigabyte disk on it and installs Linux using the following partitioning system:

/boot    /dev/hda1     10 Megabytes
 swap     /dev/hda2    256 Megabytes
 /        /dev/hda3      2 Gigabytes
 /home    /dev/hda4      6 Gigabytes
  • This, he thinks, will maximize the amount of space available for all his MP3 files.

Sometime later Joe decides that he want to install the latest office suite and desktop UI available but realizes that the root partition isn't large enough. But, having archived all his MP3s onto a new writable DVD drive there is plenty of space on /home.

His options are not good:

  1. Reformat the disk, change the partitioning scheme and reinstall.
  2. Buy a new disk and figure out some new partitioning scheme that will require the minimum of data movement.
  3. Set up a symlink farm on / pointing to /home and install the new software on /home

With LVM this becomes much easier:

Jane buys a similar PC but uses LVM to divide up the disk in a similar manner:

/boot     /dev/hda1        10 Megabytes
 swap      /dev/vg00/swap   256 Megabytes
 /         /dev/vg00/root     2 Gigabytes
 /home     /dev/vg00/home     6 Gigabytes

note.jpg

boot is not included on the LV because bootloaders don't understand LVM volumes yet. It's possible boot on LVM will work, but you run the risk of having an unbootable system.

warning.jpg

root on LV should be used by advanced users only

root on LVM requires an initrd image that activates the root LV. If a kernel is upgraded without building the necessary initrd image, that kernel will be unbootable. Newer distributions support lvm in their mkinitrd scripts as well as their packaged initrd images, so this becomes less of an issue over time.

When she hits a similar problem she can reduce the size of /home by a gigabyte and add that space to the root partition.

Suppose that Joe and Jane then manage to fill up the /home partition as well and decide to add a new 20 Gigabyte disk to their systems.

Joe formats the whole disk as one partition (/dev/hdb1) and moves his existing /home data onto it and uses the new disk as /home. But he has 6 gigabytes unused or has to use symlinks to make that disk appear as an extension of /home, say /home/joe/old-mp3s.

Jane simply adds the new disk to her existing volume group and extends her /home logical volume to include the new disk. Or, in fact, she could move the data from /home on the old disk to the new disk and then extend the existing root volume to cover all of the old disk.

3.3. Benefits of Logical Volume Management on a Large System

The benefits of logical volume management are more obvious on large systems with many disk drives.

Managing a large disk farm is a time-consuming job, made particularly complex if the system contains many disks of different sizes. Balancing the (often conflicting) storage requirements of various users can be a nightmare.

User groups can be allocated to volume groups and logical volumes and these can be grown as required. It is possible for the system administrator to "hold back" disk storage until it is required. It can then be added to the volume(user) group that has the most pressing need.

When new drives are added to the system, it is no longer necessary to move users files around to make the best use of the new storage; simply add the new disk into an existing volume group or groups and extend the logical volumes as necessary.

It is also easy to take old drives out of service by moving the data from them onto newer drives - this can be done online, without disrupting user service.


4. Chapter 3. Anatomy of LVM

This diagram gives a overview of the main elements in an LVM system:

+-- Volume Group --------------------------------+
 |                                               |
 |    +----------------------------------------+ |
 | PV | PE |  PE | PE | PE | PE | PE | PE | PE | |
 |    +----------------------------------------+ |
 |      .                 .          .        .  |
 |      .          .                 .        .  |
 |    +----------------------------------------+ |
 | LV | LE |  LE | LE | LE | LE | LE | LE | LE | |
 |    +----------------------------------------+ |
 |      .          .        .             .      |
 |      .               .        .        .      |
 |    +----------------------------------------+ |
 | PV | PE |  PE | PE | PE | PE | PE | PE | PE | |
 |    +----------------------------------------+ |
 |                                               |
 +-----------------------------------------------+

Another way to look at is this (courtesy of Erik Bågfors on the linux-lvm mailing list):

    hda1   hdc1      (PV:s on partitions or whole disks)                        
        \   /                                                                    
         \ /                                                                     
        diskvg        (VG)                                                       
        /  |  \                                                                  
       /   |   \                                                                 
   usrlv rootlv varlv (LV:s)
     |      |     |                                                              
  ext2  reiserfs  xfs (filesystems)                                        

4.1. Volume Group (VG)

The Volume Group is the highest level abstraction used within the LVM. It gathers together a collection of Logical Volumes and Physical Volumes into one administrative unit.

4.2. Physical Volume (PV)

A physical volume is typically a hard disk, though it may well just be a device that 'looks' like a hard disk (eg. a software raid device).

4.3. Logical Volume (LV)

The equivalent of a disk partition in a non-LVM system. The LV is visible as a standard block device; as such the LV can contain a file system (eg. /home).

4.4. Physical Extent (PE)

Each physical volume is divided chunks of data, known as physical extents, these extents have the same size as the logical extents for the volume group.

4.5. Logical Extent (LE)

Each logical volume is split into chunks of data, known as logical extents. The extent size is the same for all logical volumes in the volume group.

4.6. Tying it All Together

A concrete example will help:

Lets suppose we have a volume group called VG1, this volume group has a physical extent size of 4MB. Into this volume group we introduce 2 hard disk partitions, /dev/hda1 and /dev/hdb1. These partitions will become physical volumes PV1 and PV2 (more meaningful names can be given at the administrators discretion). The PV's are divided up into 4MB chunks, since this is the extent size for the volume group. The disks are different sizes and we get 99 extents in PV1 and 248 extents in PV2. We now can create ourselves a logical volume, this can be any size between 1 and 347 (248 + 99) extents. When the logical volume is created a mapping is defined between logical extents and physical extents, eg. logical extent 1 could map onto physical extent 51 of PV1, data written to the first 4 MB of the logical volume in fact be written to the 51st extent of PV1.

4.7. Mapping Modes (linear/striped)

The administrator can choose between a couple of general strategies for mapping logical extents onto physical extents:

  1. Linear mapping will assign a range of PE's to an area of an LV in order eg., LE 1 - 99 map to PV1 and LE 100 - 347 map onto PV2.

  2. Striped mapping will interleave the chunks of the logical extents across a number of physical volumes eg.,

 1st chunk of LE[1] -> PV1[1],
 2nd chunk of LE[1] -> PV2[1],
 3rd chunk of LE[1] -> PV3[1],
 4th chunk of LE[1] -> PV1[2],

and so on. In certain situations this strategy can improve the performance of the logical volume.

warning.jpg

LVM 1 Caveat

LVs created using striping cannot be extended past the PVs they were originally created on in LVM 1.

  • In LVM 2, striped LVs can be extended by concatenating another set of devices onto the end of the first set. So you can get into a situation where your LV is a 2 stripe set concatenated with a linear set concatenated with a 4 stripe set. Are you confused yet?

4.8. Snapshots

A wonderful facility provided by LVM is 'snapshots'. This allows the administrator to create a new block device which presents an exact copy of a logical volume, frozen at some point in time. Typically this would be used when some batch processing, a backup for instance, needs to be performed on the logical volume, but you don't want to halt a live system that is changing the data. When the snapshot device has been finished with the system administrator can just remove the device. This facility does require that the snapshot be made at a time when the data on the logical volume is in a consistent state - the VFS-lock patch for LVM1 makes sure that some filesystems do this automatically when a snapshot is created, and many of the filesystems in the 2.6 kernel do this automatically when a snapshot is created without patching.

warning.jpg

Full snapshot are automatically disabled

If the snapshot logical volume becomes full it will be dropped (become unusable) so it is vitally important to allocate enough space. The amount of space necessary is dependent on the usage of the snapshot, so there is no set recipe to follow for this. If the snapshot size equals the origin size, it will never overflow.

LVM1 has read-only snapshots. Read-only snapshots work by creating an exception table, which is used to keep track of which blocks have been changed. If a block is to be changed on the origin, it is first copied to the snapshot, marked as copied in the exception table, and then the new data is written to the original volume.

In LVM2, snapshots are read/write by default. Read/write snapshots work like read-only snapshots, with the additional feature that if data is written to the snapshot, that block is marked in the exception table as used, and never gets copied from the original volume. This opens up many new possibilities that were not possible with LVM1's read-only snapshots. One example is to snapshot a volume, mount the snapshot, and try an experimental program that change files on that volume. If you don't like what it did, you can unmount the snapshot, remove it, and mount the original filesystem in its place. It is also useful for creating volumes for use with [http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/Research/SRG/netos/xen/ Xen]. You can create a disk image, then snapshot it and modify the snapshot for a particular domU instance. You can then create another snapshot of the original volume, and modify that one for a different domU instance. Since the only storage used by a snapshot is blocks that were changed on the origin or the snapshot, the majority of the volume is shared by the domU's.

note.jpg

With the current LVM2/device-mapper code, the origin can be grown, but not shrunk. With LVM1, you cannot resize the origin.

warning.jpg

LVM 1 -> LVM 2 Upgrade Info

Make sure to remove snapshot LVs before upgrading from LVM 1 to LVM 2. (See [#lvm2faq Section 4.1])


5. Chapter 4. Frequently Asked Questions

5.1. LVM 2 FAQ

4.1.1. [#AEN279 I have LVM 1 installed and running on my system. How do I start using LVM 2? ]:: 4.1.2. [#AEN298 Do I need a special lvm2 kernel module? ]:: 4.1.3. [#AEN303 I get errors about /dev/mapper/control when I try to use the LVM 2 tools. What's going on? ]:: 4.1.4. [#AEN326 Which commands and types of logical volumes are currently supported in LVM 2? ]:: 4.1.5. [#AEN338 Does LVM 2 use a different format from LVM 1 for it's ondisk representation of Volume Groups and Logical Volumes? ]:: 4.1.6. [#AEN343 Does LVM 2 support VGs and LVs created with LVM 1? ]:: 4.1.7. [#AEN348 Can I upgrade my LVM 1 based VGs and LVs to LVM 2 native format? ]:: 4.1.8. [#AEN353 I've upgraded to LVM 2, but the tools keep failing with out of memory errors. What gives? ]:: 4.1.9. [#AEN359 I have my root partition on an LV in LVM 1. How do I upgrade to LVM 2? And what happened to lvmcreate_initrd? ]:: 4.1.10. [#AEN383 How resilient is LVM to a sudden renumbering of physical hard disks? ]:: 4.1.11. [#AEN391 I'm trying to fill my vg, and vgdisplay/vgs says that I have 1.87 GB free, but when I do an lvcreate vg -L1.87G it says "insufficient free extends". What's going on? ]:: 4.1.12. [#AEN401 How are snapshots in LVM2 different from LVM1? ]:: 4.1.13. [#AEN407 What is the maximum size of a single LV? ]::

4.1.1. I have LVM 1 installed and running on my system. How do I start using LVM 2?

Here's the Quick Start instructions :)

  1. Start by removing any snapshot LVs on the system. These are not handled by LVM 2 and will prevent the origin from being activated when LVM 2 comes up.
  2. Make sure you have some way of booting the system other than from your standard boot partition. Have the LVM 1 tools, standard system tools (mount) and an LVM 1 compatible kernel on it in case you need to get back and fix some things.
  3. Grab the LVM 2 tools source and the device mapper source and compile them. You need to install the device mapper library using "make install" before compiling the LVM 2 tools. Also copy the dm/scripts/devmap_mknod.sh script into /sbin. I recommend only installing the 'lvm' binary for now so you have access to the LVM 1 tools if you need them. If you have access to packages for LVM 2 and device-mapper, you can install those instead, but beware of them overwriting your LVM 1 tool set.
  4. Get a device mapper compatible kernel, either built in or as a kernel module.
  5. Figure out where LVM 1 was activated in your startup scripts. Make sure the device-mapper module is loaded by that point (if you are using device mapper as a module) and add '/sbin/devmap_mknod.sh; lvm vgscan; lvm vgchange -ay' afterward.
  6. Install the kernel with device mapper support in it. Reboot. If all goes well, you should be running with lvm2.

4.1.2. Do I need a special lvm2 kernel module?

No. You need device-mapper. The lvm2 tools use device-mapper to interface with the kernel and do all their device mapping (hence the name device-mapper). As long as you have device-mapper, you should be able to use LVM2.

4.1.3. I get errors about /dev/mapper/control when I try to use the LVM 2 tools. What's going on?

The primary cause of this is not having run the "dmsetup mknodes" after rebooting into a dm capable kernel. This script generates the control node for device mapper.

If you don't have the "dmsetup mknodes", don't despair! (Though you should probably upgrade to the latest version of device-mapper.) It's pretty easy to create the /dev/mapper/control file on your own:

  1. Make sure you have the device-mapper module loaded (if you didn't build it into your kernel).
  2. Run # cat /proc/misc | grep device-mapper | awk '{print $1}' 

    • and note the number printed. (If you don't get any output, refer to step 1.)
  3. Run # mkdir /dev/mapper 

    • - if you get an error saying /dev/mapper already exists, make sure it's a directory and move on.

  4. Run # mknod /dev/mapper/control c 10 $number 

    • where $number is the number printed in step 2.
  • You should be all set now!

4.1.4. Which commands and types of logical volumes are currently supported in LVM 2?

If you are using the stable 2.4 device mapper patch from the lvm2 tarball, all the major functionality you'd expect using lvm1 is supported with the lvm2 tools. (You still need to remove snapshots before upgrading from lvm1 to lvm2)

If you are using the version of device mapper in the 2.6 kernel.org kernel series the following commands and LV types are not supported:

  • pvmove
  • snapshots

4.1.5. Does LVM 2 use a different format from LVM 1 for it's ondisk representation of Volume Groups and Logical Volumes?

Yes. LVM 2 uses lvm 2 format metadata. This format is much more flexible than the LVM 1 format metadata, removing or reducing most of the limitations LVM 1 had.

4.1.6. Does LVM 2 support VGs and LVs created with LVM 1?

Yes. LVM 2 will activate and operate on VG and LVs created with LVM 1. The exception to this is snapshots created with LVM 1 - these should be removed before upgrading. Snapshots that remain after upgrading will have to be removed before their origins can be activated by LVM 2.

4.1.7. Can I upgrade my LVM 1 based VGs and LVs to LVM 2 native format?

Yes. Use vgconvert to convert your VG and all LVs contained within it to the new lvm 2 format metadata. Be warned that it's not always possible to revert back to lvm 1 format metadata.

4.1.8. I've upgraded to LVM 2, but the tools keep failing with out of memory errors. What gives?

One possible cause of this is that some versions of LVM 1 (The user that reported this bug originally was using Mandrake 9.2, but it is not necessarily limited to that distribution) did not put a UUID into the PV and VG structures as they were supposed to. The most current versions of the LVM 2 tools automatically fill UUIDs in for the structures if they see they are missing, so you should grab a more current version and your problem should be solved. If not, post to the [#Maillists linux-lvm mailing list]

4.1.9. I have my root partition on an LV in LVM 1. How do I upgrade to LVM 2? And what happened to lvmcreate_initrd?

Upgrading to LVM 2 is a bit trickier with root on LVM, but it's not impossible. You need to queue up a kernel with device-mapper support and install the lvm2 tools (you might want to make a backup of the lvm 1 tools, or find a rescue disk with the lvm tools built in, in case you need them before you're done). Then find a mkinitrd script that has support for your distro and lvm 2.

Currently, this is the list of mkinitrd scripts that I know support lvm2, sorted by distro:

mkinitrd scripts with lvm 2 support

fedora:: The latest fedora core 2 [http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/fedora/linux/core/development/i386/Fedora/RPMS/mkinitrd-3.5.21-1.i386.rpm mkinitrd] handles lvm2, but it relies on a statically built lvm binary from the latest lvm 2 tarball. Redhat 9 users may be able to use this as wellDebian:: There is an unofficial version [http://www.poochiereds.net/svn/lvm2/ here]Generic:: There is a version in the lvm2 source tree under scripts/lvm2_createinitrd/. See the documentation in that directory for more details.

4.1.10. How resilient is LVM to a sudden renumbering of physical hard disks?

It's fine - LVM identifies PVs by UUID, not by device name.

Each disk (PV) is labeled with a UUID, which uniquely identifies it to the system. 'vgscan' identifies this after a new disk is added that changes your drive numbering. Most distros run vgscan in the lvm startup scripts to cope with this on reboot after a hardware addition. If you're doing a hot-add, you'll have to run this by hand I think. On the other hand, if your vg is activated and being used, the renumbering should not affect it at all. It's only the activation that needs the identifier, and the worst case scenario is that the activation will fail without a vgscan with a complaint about a missing PV.

note.jpg

The failure or removal of a drive that LVM is currently using will cause problems with current use and future activations of the VG that was using it.

4.1.11. I'm trying to fill my vg, and vgdisplay/vgs says that I have 1.87 GB free, but when I do an lvcreate vg -L1.87G it says "insufficient free extends". What's going on?

The 1.87 GB figure is rounded to 2 decimal places, so it's probably 1.866 GB or something. This is a human-readable output to give you a general idea of how big the VG is. If you want to specify an exact size, you must use extents instead of some multiple of bytes.

In the case of vgdisplay, use the Free PE count instead of the human readable capacity.

              Free  PE / Size          478 / 1.87 GB
                                        ^^^
  • So, this would indicate that you should do run

# lvcreate vg -l478  
  • Note that instead of an upper-case 'L', we used a lower-case 'l' to tell lvm to use extents instead of bytes.

In the case of vgs, you need to instruct it to tell you how many extents are available:

# vgs -o +vg_free_count,vg_extent_count
  • This tell vgs to add the free extents and the total number of extents to the end of the vgs listing. Use the free extent number the same way you would in the above vgdisplay case.

4.1.12. How are snapshots in LVM2 different from LVM1?

In LVM2 snapshots are read/write by default, whereas in LVM1, snapshots were only read-only. See [#snapshotintro Section 3.8] for more details

4.1.13. What is the maximum size of a single LV?

The answer to this question depends upon the CPU architecture of your computer and the kernel you are a running:

  • For 2.4 based kernels, the maximum LV size is 2TB. For some older kernels, however, the limit was 1TB due to signedness problems in the block layer. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 5 has fixes to allow the full 2TB LVs. Consult your distribution for more information in this regard.
  • For 32-bit CPUs on 2.6 kernels, the maximum LV size is 16TB.
  • For 64-bit CPUs on 2.6 kernels, the maximum LV size is 8EB. (Yes, that is a very large number.)

5.2. LVM 1 FAQ

4.2.1. [#AEN422 When will there be info here? ]::

4.2.1. When will there be info here?

When people start submitting FAQ entries ;)


6. Chapter 5. Acquiring LVM

The first thing you need to do is get a copy of LVM.

  • Download via FTP a tarball of LVM.
  • Download the source that is under active development via CVS


6.1. 5.1. Download the source

note.jpg

The LVM 1 kernel patch must be generated using the LVM 1 source. More information regarding this can be found in [#buildlvmmod Section 6.2]


6.2. 5.2. Download the development source via CVS

Note: the state of code in the CVS repository fluctuates wildly. It will contain bugs. Maybe ones that will crash LVM or the kernel. It may not even compile. Consider it alpha-quality code. You could lose data. You have been warned.


6.3. 5.3. Before You Begin

To follow the development progress of LVM, subscribe to the LVM mailing lists, linux-lvm and the appropriate commit list (see [#Maillists Section C.1]).

To build LVM from the CVS sources, you must have several GNU tools:

  • the CVS client version 1.9 or better
  • GCC 2.95.2
  • GNU make 3.79
  • autoconf, version 2.13 or better


6.4. 5.4. Initial Setup

To make life easier in the future with regards to updating the CVS tree create the file $HOME/.cvsrc and insert the following lines. This configures useful defaults for the three most commonly used CVS commands. Do this now before proceeding any further.

diff -u -b -B
 checkout -P
 update -d -P

Also, if you are on a slow net link (like a dialup), you will want to add a line containing cvs -z5 in this file. This turns on a useful compression level for all CVS commands.


6.5. 5.5. Checking Out Source Code

  • Device Mapper library and toolsThe device mapper library is required to build LVM 2.The first time you download from cvs, you must login

    ''' # cvs -d :pserver:cvs@sources.redhat.com:/cvs/dm login cvs
     '''

    The password is cvs'. The command outputs nothing if successful and an error message if it fails. Only an initial login is required. All subsequent CVS commands read the password stored in the file $HOME/.cvspass` for authentication.Use the following to check out a copy of the code

    ''' # cvs -d :pserver:cvs@sources.redhat.com:/cvs/dm checkout device-mapper    
     '''

    This will create a new directory device-mapper in your current directory containing the latest, up-to-the-minute device mapper code.

  • LVM 2The first time you download from cvs, you must login

    ''' # cvs -d :pserver:cvs@sources.redhat.com:/cvs/lvm2 login cvs
     '''

    The password is cvs'. The command outputs nothing if successful and an error message if it fails. Only an initial login is required. All subsequent CVS commands read the password stored in the file $HOME/.cvspass` for authentication.Use the following to check out a copy of the code

    ''' # cvs -d :pserver:cvs@sources.redhat.com:/cvs/lvm2 checkout LVM2    
     '''

    This will create a new directory LVM2 in your current directory containing the latest, up-to-the-minute LVM 2 code.

  • LVM 1The first time you download from cvs, you must login

    ''' # cvs -d :pserver:cvs@sources.redhat.com:/cvs/lvm login cvs
     '''

    The password is cvs'. The command outputs nothing if successful and an error message if it fails. Only an initial login is required. All subsequent CVS commands read the password stored in the file $HOME/.cvspass` for authentication.Use the following to check out a copy of the code

    ''' # cvs -d :pserver:cvs@sources.redhat.com:/cvs/lvm checkout LVM  
     '''

    This will create a new directory LVM in your current directory containing the latest, up-to-the-minute LVM 1 code.

CVS commands work from anywhere inside the source tree, and recurse downward. So if you happen to issue an update from inside the `tools' subdirectory it will work fine, but only update the tools directory and it's subdirectories. In the following command examples it is assumed that you are at the top of the source tree.


6.6. 5.6. Code Updates

Code changes are made fairly frequently in the CVS repository. Announcements of this are automatically sent to the lvm-commit list.

You can update your copy of the sources to match the master repository with the update command. It is not necessary to check out a new copy. Using update is significantly faster and simpler, as it will download only patches instead of entire files and update only those files that have changed since your last update. It will automatically merge any changes in the CVS repository with any local changes you have made as well. Just cd to the directory you'd like to update and then type the following.

''' # cvs update '''

If you did not specify a tag when you checked out the source, this will update your sources to the latest version on the main branch. If you specified a branch tag, it will update to the latest version on that branch. If you specified a version tag, it will not do anything.


6.7. 5.7. Starting a Project

Discuss your ideas on the developers list before you start. Someone may be working on the same thing you have in mind or they may have some good ideas about how to go about it.


6.8. 5.8. Hacking the Code

So, have you found a bug you want to fix? Want to implement a feature from the TODO list? Got a new feature to implement? Hacking the code couldn't be easier. Just edit your copy of the sources. No need to copy files to .orig or anything. CVS has copies of the originals.

When you have your code in a working state and have tested as best you can with the hardware you have, generate a patch against the current sources in the CVS repository.

''' # cvs update
  # cvs diff > patchfile'''

Mail the patch to the linux-lvm or dm-devel list ([#Maillists Section C.1]) with a description of what changes or additions you implemented.


6.9. 5.9. Conflicts

If someone else has been working on the same files as you have, you may find that there are conflicting modifications. You'll discover this when you try to update your sources.

''' # cvs update '''
 `
 RCS file: LVM/tools/pvcreate.c,v
  retrieving revision 1.5
  retrieving revision 1.6
  Merging differences between 1.5 and 1.6 into pvcreate.c
  rcsmerge: warning: conflicts during merge
  cvs server: conflicts found in tools/pvcreate.c
  C tools/pvcreate.c
 `

Don't panic! Your working file, as it existed before the update, is saved under the filename .#pvcreate.c.1.5. You can always recover it should things go horribly wrong. The file named `pvcreate.c' now contains both the old (i.e. your) version and new version of lines that conflicted. You simply edit the file and resolve each conflict by deleting the unwanted version of the lines involved.

 <<<<<<< pvcreate.c
     j++;
  =======
     j--;
  >>>>>>> 1.6

Don't forget to delete the lines with all the <, =, and > symbols.


6.10. Chapter 6. Building the kernel modules

6.11. 6.1. Building the device-mapper module

Device mapper is in 2.6.9 and later, so you just need to make sure it is enabled either as a module or builtin to the kernel. Look for /sys/class/misc/device-mapper or look in /proc/devices for a device-mapper entry to see if it is enabled. If neither are there, try modprobe dm_mod, then check again. For versions previous to 2.6.9, either you or your distro must patch the kernel to support it. Check the [http://sources.redhat.com/dm/ device mapper] web page for more information.


6.12. 6.2. Build the LVM 1 kernel module

To use LVM 1 you will have to build the LVM 1 kernel module (recommended), or if you prefer rebuild the kernel with the LVM 1 code statically linked into it.

Your Linux system is probably based on one of the popular distributions (eg., Red Hat, SuSE, Debian) in which case it is possible that you already have the LVM 1 module. Check the version of the tools you have on your system. You can do this by running any of the LVM command line tools with the '-h' flag. Use pvscan -h if you don't know any of the commands. If the version number listed at the top of the help listing is LVM 1.0.8, use your current setup and avoid the rest of this section.


6.12.1. 6.2.1. Building a patch for your kernel

In order to patch the linux kernel to support LVM 1.0.8, you must do the following:

  1. Unpack LVM 1.0.8

    ''' # tar zxf lvm_1.0.8.tar.gz '''
  2. Enter the root directory of that version.

    ''' # cd LVM/1.0.8 '''
  3. Run configure

    ''' # ./configure '''

    You will need to pass the option --with-kernel_dir to configure if your linux kernel source is not in /usr/src/linux. (Run ./configure --help to see all the options available)

  4. Enter the PATCHES directory

    ''' # cd PATCHES '''
  5. Run 'make'

    '''# make '''

    You should now have a patch called lvm-1.0.8-$KERNELVERSION.patch in the patches directory. This is the LVM kernel patch referenced in later sections of the howto.

  6. Patch the kernel

    ''' # cd /usr/src/linux ; patch -pX < /directory/lvm-1.0.8-$KERNELVERSION.patch '''


6.12.2. 6.2.2. Building the LVM module for Linux 2.2.17+

The 2.2 series kernel needs to be patched before you can start building, look elsewhere for instructions on how to patch your kernel.

Patches:

  1. rawio patchStephen Tweedie's raw_io patch which can be found at http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/sct/raw-io

  2. lvm patchThe relevant LVM 1 patch which should be built out of the PATCHES sub-directory of the LVM distribution. More information can be found in [#buildlvmpatch Section 6.2.1], Building a patch for your kernel.

Once the patches have been correctly applied, you need to make sure that the module is actually built, LVM 1 lives under the block devices section of the kernel config, you should probably request that the LVM /proc information is compiled as well.

Build the kernel modules as usual.


6.12.3. 6.2.3. Building the LVM modules for Linux 2.4

The 2.4 kernel comes with LVM 1 already included although you should check at the Sistina web site for updates, (eg. v2.4.9 kernels and earlier must have the [#buildlvmpatch latest LVM 1 patch] applied ). When configuring your kernel look for LVM 1 under Multi-device support (RAID and LVM). LVM 1 can be compiled into the kernel or as a module. Build your kernel and modules and install then in the usual way. If you chose to build LVM as a module it will be called lvm-mod.o

If you want to use snapshots with ReiserFS, make sure you apply the linux-2.4.x-VFS-lock patch (there are copies of this in the LVM/1.0.8/PATCHES directory.)


6.12.4. 6.2.4. Checking the proc file system

If your kernel was compiled with the /proc file system (most are) then you can verify that LVM is present by looking for a /proc/lvm directory. If this doesn't exist then you may have to load the module with the command

''' # modprobe lvm-mod '''

If  /proc/lvm  still does not exist then check your kernel configuration carefully.

When LVM is active you will see entries in /proc/lvm for all your physical volumes, volume groups and logical volumes. In addition there is a "file" called /proc/lvm/global which gives a summary of the LVM status and also shows just which version of the LVM kernel you are using.


6.13. Chapter 7. LVM 1 Boot time scripts

Boot-time scripts are not provided as part of the LVM distribution, however these are quite simple to do for yourself.

The startup of LVM requires just the following two commands:

''' # vgscan
 # vgchange -ay '''

And the shutdown only one:

''' # vgchange -an'''

Follow the instructions below depending on the distribution of Linux you are running.


6.14. 7.1. Caldera

It is necessary to edit the file /etc/rc.d/rc.boot. Look for the line that says "Mounting local filesystems" and insert the vgscan and vgchange commands just before it.

You may also want to edit the the file /etc/rc.d/init.d/halt to deactivate the volume groups at shutdown. Insert the

''' vgchange -an '''


6.15. 7.2. Debian

If you download the Debian lvm tool package, an initscript should be installed for you.

If you are installing LVM from source, you will still need to build your own initscript:

Create a startup script in /etc/init.d/lvm containing the following:

 case "$1" in
   start)
        /sbin/vgscan
        /sbin/vgchange -ay
         ;;
   stop)
        /sbin/vgchange -an
         ;;
   restart|force-reload)
        ;;
 esac
 exit 0

Then execute the commands

'''
 # chmod 0755 /etc/init.d/lvm
  # update-rc.d lvm start 26 S . stop 82 1 .
 '''


6.16. 7.3. Mandrake

No initscript modifications should be necessary for current versions of Mandrake.


6.17. 7.4. Redhat

For Redhat 7.0 and up, you should not need to modify any initscripts to enable LVM at boot time if LVM is built into the kernel. If LVM is built as a module, it may be necessary to modify  /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit  to load the LVM module by adding "modprobe lvm-mod" before the section that reads:

{{{ # LVM initialization, take 2 (it could be on top of RAID)

note.jpg

This init script fragment is from Red Hat 7.3 - other versions of Redhat may look slightly different.

For versions of Redhat older than 7.0, it is necessary to edit the file /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit. Look for the line that says "Mount all other filesystems" and insert the vgscan and vgchange commands just before it. You should be sure that your root file system is mounted read/write before you run the LVM commands.

You may also want to edit the the file /etc/rc.d/init.d/halt to deactivate the volume groups at shutdown. Insert the

vgchange -an


6.18. 7.5. Slackware

Slackware 8.1 requires no updating of boot time scripts in order to make LVM work.

For versions previous to Slackware 8.1, you should apply the following patch to /etc/rc.d/rc.S

cd /etc/rc.d
 cp -a rc.S rc.S.old
 patch -p0 < rc.S.diff

----- snip snip file: rc.S.diff---------------
 --- rc.S.or    Tue Jul 17 18:11:20 2001
 +++ rc.S       Tue Jul 17 17:57:36 2001
 @@ -4,6 +4,7 @@
  #
  # Mostly written by:  Patrick J. Volkerding, <volkerdi@slackware.com>
  #
 +# Added LVM support <tgs@iafrica.com>
  PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin:/bin:/usr/bin
 @@ -28,19 +29,21 @@
    READWRITE=yes
  fi
 +
  # Check the integrity of all filesystems
  if [ ! READWRITE = yes ]; then
 -  /sbin/fsck -A -a
 +  /sbin/fsck -a /
 +  # Check only the root fs first, but no others
    # If there was a failure, drop into single-user mode.
    if [ ? -gt 1 ] ; then
      echo
      echo
 -    echo "*******************************************************"
 -    echo "*** An error occurred during the file system check. ***"
 -    echo "*** You will now be given a chance to log into the  ***"
 -    echo "*** system in single-user mode to fix the problem.  ***"
 -    echo "*** Running 'e2fsck -v -y <partition>' might help.  ***"
 -    echo "*******************************************************"
 +    echo "************************************************************"
 +    echo "*** An error occurred during the root file system check. ***"
 +    echo "*** You will now be given a chance to log into the       ***"
 +    echo "*** system in single-user mode to fix the problem.       ***"
 +    echo "*** Running 'e2fsck -v -y <partition>' might help.       ***"
 +    echo "************************************************************"
      echo
      echo "Once you exit the single-user shell, the system will reboot."
      echo
 @@ -82,6 +85,44 @@
      echo -n "get into your machine and start looking for the problem. "
      read junk;
    fi
 +  # okay / fs is clean, and mounted as rw
 +  # This was an addition, limits vgscan to /proc thus
 +  # speeding up the scan immensely.
 +  /sbin/mount /proc
 +
 +  # Initialize Logical Volume Manager
 +  /sbin/vgscan
 +  /sbin/vgchange -ay
 +
 +  /sbin/fsck -A -a -R
 +  #Check all the other filesystem, including the LVM's, excluding /
 +
 +  # If there was a failure, drop into single-user mode.
 +  if [ ? -gt 1 ] ; then
 +    echo
 +    echo
 +    echo "*******************************************************"
 +    echo "*** An error occurred during the file system check. ***"
 +    echo "*** You will now be given a chance to log into the  ***"
 +    echo "*** system in single-user mode to fix the problem.  ***"
 +    echo "*** Running 'e2fsck -v -y <partition>' might help.  ***"
 +    echo "*** The root filesystem is ok and mounted readwrite ***"
 +    echo "*******************************************************"
 +    echo
 +    echo "Once you exit the single-user shell, the system will reboot."
 +    echo
 +
 +    PS1="(Repair filesystem) #"; export PS1
 +    sulogin
 +
 +    echo "Unmounting file systems."
 +    umount -a -r
 +    mount -n -o remount,ro /
 +    echo "Rebooting system."
 +    sleep 2
 +    reboot
 +  fi
 +
  else
    echo "Testing filesystem status: read-write filesystem"
    if cat /etc/fstab | grep ' / ' | grep umsdos 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null ;
 then
 @@ -111,14 +152,16 @@
      echo -n "Press ENTER to continue. "
      read junk;
    fi
 +
  fi
 +
  # remove /etc/mtab* so that mount will create it with a root entry
  /bin/rm -f /etc/mtab* /etc/nologin /etc/shutdownpid
  # mount file systems in fstab (and create an entry for /)
  # but not NFS or SMB because TCP/IP is not yet configured
 -/sbin/mount -a -v -t nonfs,nosmbfs
 +/sbin/mount -a -v -t nonfs,nosmbfs,proc
  # Clean up temporary files on the /var volume:
  /bin/rm -f /var/run/utmp /var/run/*.pid /var/log/setup/tmp/*
 --snip snip snip end of file---------------


6.19. 7.6. SuSE

No changes should be necessary from 6.4 onward as LVM is included


6.20. Chapter 8. LVM 2 Boot Time Scripts

For initrds, you should have:

      dmsetup mknodes
       vgscan --ignorelockingfailure
       vgchange -ay --ignorelockingfailure


6.21. Chapter 9. Building LVM from the Source

6.22. 9.1. Make LVM library and tools

Change into the LVM directory and do a ./configure followed by make. This will make all of the libraries and programs.

If the need arises you can change some options with the configure script. Do a ./configure --help to determine which options are supported. Most of the time this will not be necessary.

There should be no errors from the build process. If there are, see [#ReportBug Reporting Errors and Bugs] on how to report this.

You are welcome to fix them and send us the patches too. Patches are generally sent to the [#Maillists linux-lvm] list.


6.23. 9.2. Install LVM library and tools

After the LVM source compiles properly, simply run make install to install the LVM library and tools onto your system.


6.24. 9.3. Removing LVM library and tools

To remove the library and tools you just installed, run make remove. You must have the original source tree you used to install LVM to use this feature.


6.25. Chapter 10. Transitioning from previous versions of LVM to LVM 1.0.8

Transitioning from previous versions of LVM to LVM 1.0.8 should be fairly painless. We have come up with a method to read in PV version 1 metadata (LVM 0.9.1 Beta7 and earlier) as well as PV version 2 metadata (LVM 0.9.1 Beta8 and LVM 1.0).

Warning: New PVs initialized with LVM 1.0.8 are created with the PV version 1 on-disk structure. This means that LVM 0.9.1 Beta8 and LVM 1.0 cannot read or use PVs created with 1.0.8.


6.26. 10.1. Upgrading to LVM 1.0.8 with a non-LVM root partition

There are just a few simple steps to transition this setup, but it is still recommended that you backup your data before you try it. You have been warned.

  1. Build LVM kernel and modulesFollow the steps outlined in [#getlvm Chapter 5] - [#buildlvmmod Section 6.2] for instructions on how to get and build the necessary kernel components of LVM.

  2. Build the LVM user toolsFollow the steps in [#buildlvm Chapter 9] to build and install the user tools for LVM.

  3. Setup your init scriptsMake sure you have the proper init scripts setup as per [#boot_scripts Chapter 7].

  4. Boot into the new kernelMake sure your boot-loader is setup to load the new LVM-enhanced kernel and, if you are using LVM modules, put an insmod lvm-mod into your startup script OR extend /etc/modules.conf (formerly /etc/conf.modules) by adding

         alias block-major-58      lvm-mod
          alias char-major-109      lvm-mod
    • to enable modprobe to load the LVM module (don't forget to enable kmod). Reboot and enjoy.


6.27. 10.2. Upgrading to LVM 1.0.8 with an LVM root partition and initrd

This is relatively straightforward if you follow the steps carefully. It is recommended you have a good backup and a suitable rescue disk handy just in case.

The "normal" way of running an LVM root file system is to have a single non-LVM partition called /boot which contains the kernel and initial RAM disk needed to start the system. The system I upgraded was as follows:

''' # df'''
 `
Filesystem           1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
 /dev/rootvg/root        253871     93384    147380  39% /
 /dev/hda1                17534     12944      3685  78% /boot
 /dev/rootvg/home       4128448      4568   3914168   0% /home
 /dev/rootvg/usr        1032088    332716    646944  34% /usr
 /dev/rootvg/var         253871     31760    209004  13% /var
 `

/boot contains the old kernel and an initial RAM disk as well as the LILO boot files and the following entry in /etc/lilo.conf

''' # ls /boot'''
 `
System.map                 lost+found              vmlinux-2.2.16lvm
 map                        module-info            boot.0300  
 boot.b                     os2_d.b                 chain.b
 initrd.gz                  
 `
 ''' # tail /etc/lilo.conf'''
 `
image=/boot/vmlinux-2.2.16lvm
         label=lvm08
         read-only
         root=/dev/rootvg/root
         initrd=/boot/initrd.gz
         append="ramdisk_size=8192"
 `
  1. Build LVM kernel and modules Follow the steps outlined in [#getlvm Chapter 5] - [#buildlvmmod Section 6.2] for instructions on how to get and build the necessary kernel components of LVM.

  2. Build the LVM user tools Follow the steps in [#buildlvmmod Section 6.2] to build and install the user tools for LVM.Install the new tools. Once you have done this you cannot do any LVM manipulation as they are not compatible with the kernel you are currently running.

  3. Rename the existing initrd.gz This is so it doesn't get overwritten by the new one

    '''# mv /boot/initrd.gz /boot/initrd08.gz'''
  4. Edit /etc/lilo.conf Make the existing boot entry point to the renamed file. You will need to reboot using this if something goes wrong in the next reboot. The changed entry will look something like this:

    image=/boot/vmlinux-2.2.16lvm
             label=lvm08
             read-only
             root=/dev/rootvg/root
             initrd=/boot/initrd08.gz
             append="ramdisk_size=8192"
  5. Run lvmcreate_initrd to create a new initial RAM disk

    '''# lvmcreate_initrd 2.4.9'''
    • Don't forget the put the new kernel version in there so that it picks up the correct modules.
  6. Add a new entry into /etc/lilo.conf This new entry is to boot the new kernel with its new initrd.

    image=/boot/vmlinux-2.4.9lvm
             label=lvm10
             read-only
             root=/dev/rootvg/root
             initrd=/boot/initrd.gz
             append="ramdisk_size=8192"
  7. Re-run lilo This will install the new boot block

    '''# /sbin/lilo'''
  8. Reboot When you get the LILO prompt select the new entry name (in this example lvm10) and your system should boot into Linux using the new LVM version.If the new kernel does not boot, then simply boot the old one and try to fix the problem. It may be that the new kernel does not have all the correct device drivers built into it, or that they are not available in the initrd. Remember that all device drivers (apart from LVM) needed to access the root device should be compiled into the kernel and not as modules.If you need to do any LVM manipulation when booted back into the old version, then simply recompile the old tools and install them with

    '''# make install'''
    • If you do this, don't forget to install the new tools when you reboot into the new LVM version.


6.28. Chapter 11. Common Tasks

The following sections outline some common administrative tasks for an LVM system. This is no substitute for reading the man pages.


6.29. 11.1. Initializing disks or disk partitions

Before you can use a disk or disk partition as a physical volume you will have to initialize it:

For entire disks:

  • Run pvcreate on the disk:

    '''# pvcreate /dev/hdb'''
    • This creates a volume group descriptor at the start of disk. ||<tablestyle="width:100%"> warning.jpg || Not Recommended ||

    Using the whole disk as a PV (as opposed to a partition spanning the whole disk) is not recommended because of the management issues it can create. Any other OS that looks at the disk will not recognize the LVM metadata and display the disk as being free, so it is likely it will be overwritten. LVM itself will work fine with whole disk PVs.

  • If you get an error that LVM can't initialize a disk with a partition table on it, first make sure that the disk you are operating on is the correct one. If you are very sure that it is, run the following:||<tablestyle="width:100%"> warning.jpg || DANGEROUS ||

    The following commands will destroy the partition table on the disk being operated on. Be very sure it is the correct disk.

    # dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/diskname bs=1k count=1
     # blockdev --rereadpt /dev/diskname
  • For partitions:
    • When using LVM 1 on PCs with DOS partitions, set the partition type to 0x8e using fdisk or some other similar program. This step is unnecessary on PPC systems or when using LVM 2.
    • Run pvcreate on the partition:

      '''# pvcreate /dev/hdb1'''
      • This creates a volume group descriptor at the start of the /dev/hdb1 partition.


6.30. 11.2. Creating a volume group

Use the 'vgcreate' program:

'''# vgcreate my_volume_group /dev/hda1 /dev/hdb1 '''

NOTE: If you are using LVM 1 with devfs it is essential to use the full devfs name of the device rather than the symlinked name in /dev. So the above would be:

'''# vgcreate my_volume_group /dev/ide/host0/bus0/target0/lun0/part1 \
                            /dev/ide/host0/bus0/target1/lun0/part1'''
  • LVM 2 does not have this restriction.

You can also specify the extent size with this command if the default of 32MB is not suitable for you with the '-s' switch. In addition you can put some limits on the number of physical or logical volumes the volume can have.


6.31. 11.3. Activating a volume group

After rebooting the system or running vgchange -an, you will not be able to access your VGs and LVs. To reactivate the volume group, run:

'''# vgchange -a y my_volume_group'''


6.32. 11.4. Removing a volume group

Make sure that no logical volumes are present in the volume group, see later section for how to do this.

Deactivate the volume group:

'''# vgchange -a n my_volume_group'''

Now you actually remove the volume group:

'''# vgremove my_volume_group'''


6.33. 11.5. Adding physical volumes to a volume group

Use 'vgextend' to add an initialized physical volume to an existing volume group.

'''# vgextend my_volume_group /dev/hdc1'''
                                     ^^^^^^^^^ new physical volume


6.34. 11.6. Removing physical volumes from a volume group

Make sure that the physical volume isn't used by any logical volumes by using then 'pvdisplay' command:

'''# pvdisplay /dev/hda1'''
 `
--- Physical volume ---
 PV Name               /dev/hda1
 VG Name               myvg
 PV Size               1.95 GB / NOT usable 4 MB [LVM: 122 KB]
 PV#                   1
 PV Status             available
 Allocatable           yes (but full)
 Cur LV                1
 PE Size (KByte)       4096
 Total PE              499
 Free PE               0
 Allocated PE          499
 PV UUID               Sd44tK-9IRw-SrMC-MOkn-76iP-iftz-OVSen7
 `

If the physical volume is still used you will have to migrate the data to another physical volume using pvmove.

Then use 'vgreduce' to remove the physical volume:

'''# vgreduce my_volume_group /dev/hda1'''


6.35. 11.7. Creating a logical volume

To create a 1500MB linear LV named 'testlv' and its block device special '/dev/testvg/testlv':

'''# lvcreate -L1500 -ntestlv testvg'''

To create a 100 LE large logical volume with 2 stripes and stripe size 4 KB.

'''# lvcreate -i2 -I4 -l100 -nanothertestlv testvg'''

If you want to create an LV that uses the entire VG, use vgdisplay to find the "Total PE" size, then use that when running lvcreate.

'''# vgdisplay testvg | grep "Total PE"'''
 `Total PE              10230`
 '''# lvcreate -l 10230 testvg -n mylv'''
  • This will create an LV called mylv filling the testvg VG.

If you want the logical volume to be allocated from a specific physical volume in the volume group, specify the PV or PVs at the end of the lvcreate command line.

'''# lvcreate -L 1500 -ntestlv testvg /dev/sdg'''


6.36. 11.8. Removing a logical volume

A logical volume must be closed before it can be removed:

'''# umount /dev/myvg/homevol
 # lvremove /dev/myvg/homevol'''
 `lvremove -- do you really want to remove "/dev/myvg/homevol"? [y/n]: ``''y''`
 `lvremove -- doing automatic backup of volume group "myvg"
 lvremove -- logical volume "/dev/myvg/homevol" successfully removed`


6.37. 11.9. Extending a logical volume

To extend a logical volume you simply tell the lvextend command how much you want to increase the size. You can specify how much to grow the volume, or how large you want it to grow to:

'''# lvextend -L12G /dev/myvg/homevol'''
 `lvextend -- extending logical volume "/dev/myvg/homevol" to 12 GB
 lvextend -- doing automatic backup of volume group "myvg"
 lvextend -- logical volume "/dev/myvg/homevol" successfully extended`
  • will extend /dev/myvg/homevol to 12 Gigabytes.

'''# lvextend -L+1G /dev/myvg/homevol'''
 `lvextend -- extending logical volume "/dev/myvg/homevol" to 13 GB
 lvextend -- doing automatic backup of volume group "myvg"
 lvextend -- logical volume "/dev/myvg/homevol" successfully extended`
  • will add another gigabyte to /dev/myvg/homevol.

After you have extended the logical volume it is necessary to increase the file system size to match. how you do this depends on the file system you are using.

By default, most file system resizing tools will increase the size of the file system to be the size of the underlying logical volume so you don't need to worry about specifying the same size for each of the two commands.

  1. ext2/ext3 Unless you have patched your kernel with the ext2online patch it is necessary to unmount the file system before resizing it. (It seems that the online resizing patch is rather dangerous, so use at your own risk)

       '''# umount /dev/myvg/homevol/dev/myvg/homevol
        # resize2fs /dev/myvg/homevol
        # mount /dev/myvg/homevol /home'''

    If you don't have e2fsprogs 1.19 or later, you can download the ext2resize command from [http://ext2resize.sourceforge.net ext2resize.sourceforge.net] and use that:

       '''# umount /dev/myvg/homevol/dev/myvg/homevol
        # ext2resize /dev/myvg/homevol
        # mount /dev/myvg/homevol /home'''

    For ext2 there is an easier way. LVM 1 ships with a utility called e2fsadm which does the lvextend and resize2fs for you (it can also do file system shrinking, see the next section).||<tablestyle="width:100%"> warning.jpg || LVM 2 Caveat ||

    There is currently no e2fsadm equivalent for LVM 2 and the e2fsadm that ships with LVM 1 does not work with LVM 2.

    • so the single command

         '''# e2fsadm -L+1G /dev/myvg/homevol'''

      is equivalent to the two commands:

         '''# lvextend -L+1G /dev/myvg/homevol
          # resize2fs /dev/myvg/homevol'''

    note.jpg

    Note

    You will still need to unmount the file system before running e2fsadm.

  2. reiserfs Reiserfs file systems can be resized when mounted or unmounted as you prefer:

    • Online:

         '''# resize_reiserfs -f /dev/myvg/homevol'''
    • Offline:

         '''# umount /dev/myvg/homevol
          # resize_reiserfs /dev/myvg/homevol
          # mount -treiserfs /dev/myvg/homevol /home'''
  3. xfs XFS file systems must be mounted to be resized and the mount-point is specified rather than the device name.

       '''# xfs_growfs /home'''
  4. jfs Just like XFS the JFS file system must be mounted to be resized and the mount-point is specified rather than the device name. You need at least Version 1.0.21 of the jfs-utils to do this.

    '''# mount -o remount,resize /home'''

    warning.jpg

    Known Kernel Bug

    ||

    Some kernel versions have problems with this syntax (2.6.0 is known to have this problem). In this case you have to explicitly specify the new size of the filesystem in blocks. This is extremely error prone as you must know the blocksize of your filesystem and calculate the new size based on those units.Example: If you were to resize a JFS file system to 5 gigabytes that has 4k blocks, you would write:

    '''# mount -o remount,resize=1048576 /home'''


6.38. 11.10. Reducing a logical volume

Logical volumes can be reduced in size as well as increased. However, it is very important to remember to reduce the size of the file system or whatever is residing in the volume before shrinking the volume itself, otherwise you risk losing data.

  1. ext2 If you are using LVM 1 with ext2 as the file system then you can use the e2fsadm command mentioned earlier to take care of both the file system and volume resizing as follows:

    '''# umount /home
     # e2fsadm -L-1G /dev/myvg/homevol
     # mount /home'''

    warning.jpg

    LVM 2 Caveat

    There is currently no e2fsadm equivalent for LVM 2 and the e2fsadm that ships with LVM 1 does not work with LVM 2.

    If you prefer to do this manually you must know the new size of the volume in blocks and use the following commands:

    '''# umount /home
     # resize2fs /dev/myvg/homevol 524288
     # lvreduce -L-1G /dev/myvg/homevol
     # mount /home'''
  2. reiserfs Reiserfs seems to prefer to be unmounted when shrinking

    '''# umount /home
     # resize_reiserfs -s-1G /dev/myvg/homevol
     # lvreduce -L-1G /dev/myvg/homevol
     # mount -treiserfs /dev/myvg/homevol /home'''
  3. xfs There is no way to shrink XFS file systems.

  4. jfs There is no way to shrink JFS file systems.


6.39. 11.11. Migrating data off of a physical volume

To take a disk out of service it must first have all of its active physical extents moved to one or more of the remaining disks in the volume group. There must be enough free physical extents in the remaining PVs to hold the extents to be copied from the old disk. For further detail see [#RemoveADisk Section 13.5].


6.40. Chapter 12. Disk partitioning

6.41. 12.1. Multiple partitions on the same disk

LVM allows you to create PVs (physical volumes) out of almost any block device so, for example, the following are all valid commands and will work quite happily in an LVM environment:

'''# pvcreate /dev/sda1
 # pvcreate /dev/sdf
 # pvcreate /dev/hda8
 # pvcreate /dev/hda6
 # pvcreate /dev/md1'''

In a "normal" production system it is recommended that only one PV exists on a single real disk, for the following reasons:

  • Administrative convenienceIt's easier to keep track of the hardware in a system if each real disk only appears once. This becomes particularly true if a disk fails.
  • To avoid striping performance problemsLVM can't tell that two PVs are on the same physical disk, so if you create a striped LV then the stripes could be on different partitions on the same disk resulting in a decrease in performance rather than an increase.

  • However it may be desirable to do this for some reasons:
    • Migration of existing system to LVMOn a system with few disks it may be necessary to move data around partitions to do the conversion (see [#UpgradeRootToLVM Section 13.8])
    • Splitting one big disk between Volume GroupsIf you have a very large disk and want to have more than one volume group for administrative purposes then it is necessary to partition the drive into more than one area.

If you do have a disk with more than one partition and both of those partitions are in the same volume group, take care to specify which partitions are to be included in a logical volume when creating striped volumes.

The recommended method of partitioning a disk is to create a single partition that covers the whole disk. This avoids any nasty accidents with whole disk drive device nodes and prevents the kernel warning about unknown partition types at boot-up.


6.42. 12.2. Sun disk labels

You need to be especially careful on SPARC systems where the disks have Sun disk labels on them.

The normal layout for a Sun disk label is for the first partition to start at block zero of the disk, thus the first partition also covers the area containing the disk label itself. This works fine for ext2 filesystems (and is essential for booting using SILO) but such partitions should not be used for LVM. This is because LVM starts writing at the very start of the device and will overwrite the disk label.

If you want to use a disk with a Sun disk label with LVM, make sure that the partition you are going to use starts at cylinder 1 or higher.


6.43. Chapter 13. Recipes

This section details several different "recipes" for setting up lvm. The hope is that the reader will adapt these recipes to their own system and needs.


6.44. 13.1. Setting up LVM on three SCSI disks

For this recipe, the setup has three SCSI disks that will be put into a logical volume using LVM. The disks are at /dev/sda, /dev/sdb, and /dev/sdc.


6.44.1. 13.1.1. Preparing the disks

Before you can use a disk in a volume group you will have to prepare it:

warning.jpg

Warning!

The following will destroy any data on /dev/sda, /dev/sdb, and /dev/sdc

Run pvcreate on the disks

'''# pvcreate /dev/sda
 # pvcreate /dev/sdb
 # pvcreate /dev/sdc'''
  • This creates a volume group descriptor area (VGDA) at the start of the disks.


6.44.2. 13.1.2. Setup a Volume Group

  1. Create a volume group

    '''# vgcreate my_volume_group /dev/sda /dev/sdb /dev/sdc/'''
  2. Run vgdisplay to verify volume group

    '''# vgdisplay'''
     `# vgdisplay
     --- Volume Group ---
     VG Name                      my_volume_group
     VG Access             read/write
     VG Status             available/resizable
     VG #                  1
     MAX LV                256
     Cur LV                0
     Open LV               0
     MAX LV Size           255.99 GB
     Max PV                256
     Cur PV                3
     Act PV                3
     VG Size               1.45 GB
     PE Size               4 MB
     Total PE              372
     Alloc PE / Size       0 / 0
     Free  PE / Size       372/ 1.45 GB
     VG UUID               nP2PY5-5TOS-hLx0-FDu0-2a6N-f37x-0BME0Y`
    • The most important things to verify are that the first three items are correct and that the VG Size item is the proper size for the amount of space in all four of your disks.


6.44.3. 13.1.3. Creating the Logical Volume

If the volume group looks correct, it is time to create a logical volume on top of the volume group.

You can make the logical volume any size you like. (It is similar to a partition on a non LVM setup.) For this example we will create just a single logical volume of size 1GB on the volume group. We will not use striping because it is not currently possible to add a disk to a stripe set after the logical volume is created.

'''# lvcreate -L1G -nmy_logical_volume my_volume_group'''
 `lvcreate -- doing automatic backup of "my_volume_group"
 lvcreate -- logical volume "/dev/my_volume_group/my_logical_volume" successfully created`


6.44.4. 13.1.4. Create the File System

Create an ext2 file system on the logical volume

'''# mke2fs /dev/my_volume_group/my_logical_volume'''
 `mke2fs 1.19, 13-Jul-2000 for EXT2 FS 0.5b, 95/08/09
 Filesystem label=
 OS type: Linux
 Block size=4096 (log=2)
 Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
 131072 inodes, 262144 blocks
 13107 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
 First data block=0
 9 block groups
 32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
 16384 inodes per group
 Superblock backups stored on blocks:
         32768, 98304, 163840, 229376
 Writing inode tables: done
 Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done`


6.44.5. 13.1.5. Test the File System

Mount the logical volume and check to make sure everything looks correct

'''# mount /dev/my_volume_group/my_logical_volume /mnt
 # df'''
 `Filesystem           1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
 /dev/hda1              1311552    628824    616104  51% /
 /dev/my_volume_group/my_logical_volume
                        1040132        20    987276   0% /mnt`

If everything worked properly, you should now have a logical volume with and ext2 file system mounted at /mnt.


6.45. 13.2. Setting up LVM on three SCSI disks with striping

For this recipe, the setup has three SCSI disks that will be put into a logical volume using LVM. The disks are at /dev/sda, /dev/sdb, and /dev/sdc.

note.jpg

Note

It is not currently possible to add a disk to a striped logical volume in LVM 1. Use LVM 2 with the lvm 2 format metadata if you wish to be able to do so able to do so.


6.45.1. 13.2.1. Preparing the disk partitions

Before you can use a disk in a volume group you will have to prepare it:

warning.jpg

Warning!

The following will destroy any data on /dev/sda, /dev/sdb, and /dev/sdc

Run pvcreate on the disks:

'''# pvcreate /dev/sda
 # pvcreate /dev/sdb
 # pvcreate /dev/sdc'''
  • This creates a volume group descriptor area (VGDA) at the start of the disks.


6.45.2. 13.2.2. Setup a Volume Group

  1. Create a volume group

    '''# vgcreate my_volume_group /dev/sda /dev/sdb /dev/sdc'''
  2. Run vgdisplay to verify volume group

    '''# vgdisplay'''
     `--- Volume Group ---
     VG Name                      my_volume_group
     VG Access             read/write
     VG Status             available/resizable
     VG #                  1
     MAX LV                256
     Cur LV                0
     Open LV               0
     MAX LV Size           255.99 GB
     Max PV                256
     Cur PV                3
     Act PV                3
     VG Size               1.45 GB
     PE Size               4 MB
     Total PE              372
     Alloc PE / Size       0 / 0
     Free  PE / Size       372/ 1.45 GB
     VG UUID               nP2PY5-5TOS-hLx0-FDu0-2a6N-f37x-0BME0Y`
    • The most important things to verify are that the first three items are correct and that the VG Size item is the proper size for the amount of space in all four of your disks.


6.45.3. 13.2.3. Creating the Logical Volume

If the volume group looks correct, it is time to create a logical volume on top of the volume group.

You can make the logical volume any size you like (up to the size of the VG you are creating it on; it is similar to a partition on a non LVM setup). For this example we will create just a single logical volume of size 1GB on the volume group. The logical volume will be a striped set using for the 4k stripe size. This should increase the performance of the logical volume.

'''# lvcreate -i3 -I4 -L1G -nmy_logical_volume my_volume_group'''
 `lvcreate -- rounding 1048576 KB to stripe boundary size 1056768 KB / 258 PE
 lvcreate -- doing automatic backup of "my_volume_group"
 lvcreate -- logical volume "/dev/my_volume_group/my_logical_volume" successfully created`

note.jpg

Note

If you create the logical volume with a '-i2' you will only use two of the disks in your volume group. This is useful if you want to create two logical volumes out of the same physical volume, but we will not touch that in this recipe.


6.45.4. 13.2.4. Create the File System

Create an ext2 file system on the logical volume

'''# mke2fs /dev/my_volume_group/my_logical_volume'''
 `mke2fs 1.19, 13-Jul-2000 for EXT2 FS 0.5b, 95/08/09
 Filesystem label=
 OS type: Linux
 Block size=4096 (log=2)
 Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
 132192 inodes, 264192 blocks
 13209 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
 First data block=0
 9 block groups
 32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
 14688 inodes per group
 Superblock backups stored on blocks:
         32768, 98304, 163840, 229376
 Writing inode tables: done
 Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done`


6.45.5. 13.2.5. Test the File System

Mount the file system on the logical volume

'''# mount /dev/my_volume_group/my_logical_volume /mnt'''
  • and check to make sure everything looks correct

'''# df'''
 `Filesystem           1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
 /dev/hda1              1311552    628824    616104  51% /
 /dev/my_volume_group/my_logical_volume
                        1040132        20    987276   0% /mnt`
  • If everything worked properly, you should now have a logical volume mounted at /mnt.


6.46. 13.3. Add a new disk to a multi-disk SCSI system

6.46.1. 13.3.1. Current situation

A data centre machine has 6 disks attached as follows:

'''# pvscan'''
 `pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sda"  of VG "dev"   [1.95 GB / 0 free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdb"  of VG "sales" [1.95 GB / 0 free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdc"  of VG "ops"   [1.95 GB / 44 MB free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdd"  of VG "dev"   [1.95 GB / 0 free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sde1" of VG "ops"   [996 MB / 52 MB free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sde2" of VG "sales" [996 MB / 944 MB free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdf1" of VG "ops"   [996 MB / 0 free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdf2" of VG "dev"   [996 MB / 72 MB free]
 pvscan -- total: 8 [11.72 GB] / in use: 8 [11.72 GB] / in no VG: 0 [0]`
 '''# df'''
 `Filesystem           1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
 /dev/dev/cvs           1342492    516468    757828  41% /mnt/dev/cvs
 /dev/dev/users         2064208   2060036      4172 100% /mnt/dev/users
 /dev/dev/build         1548144   1023041    525103  66% /mnt/dev/build
 /dev/ops/databases     2890692   2302417    588275  79% /mnt/ops/databases
 /dev/sales/users       2064208    871214   1192994  42% /mnt/sales/users
 /dev/ops/batch         1032088    897122    134966  86% /mnt/ops/batch`
  • As you can see the "dev" and "ops" groups are getting full so a new disk is purchased and added to the system. It becomes /dev/sdg.


6.46.2. 13.3.2. Prepare the disk partitions

The new disk is to be shared equally between ops and dev so it is partitioned into two physical volumes /dev/sdg1 and /dev/sdg2 :

'''# fdisk /dev/sdg'''
 `
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun or SGI
 disklabel Building a new DOS disklabel. Changes will remain in memory
 only, until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the
 previous content won't be recoverable.`
 `Command (m for help): `n
 `Command action
    e   extended
    p   primary partition (1-4)`
 p
 `Partition number (1-4): `1
 `First cylinder (1-1000, default 1):`
 `Using default value 1`
 `Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-1000, default 1000): `500
 `Command (m for help): `n
 `Command action
    e   extended
    p   primary partition (1-4)`
 p
 `Partition number (1-4): `2
 `First cylinder (501-1000, default 501):` 
 `Using default value 501`
 `Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (501-1000, default 1000):` 
 `Using default value 1000`
 `Command (m for help): `t
 `Partition number (1-4): `1
 `Hex code (type L to list codes): `8e
 `Changed system type of partition 1 to 8e (Unknown)`
 `Command (m for help): `t
 `Partition number (1-4): `2
 `Hex code (type L to list codes): `8e
 `Changed system type of partition 2 to 8e (Unknown)`
 `Command (m for help): `w
 `The partition table has been altered!
 Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
 WARNING: If you have created or modified any DOS 6.x partitions,
 please see the fdisk manual page for additional information.
 `

Next physical volumes are created on this partition:

'''# pvcreate /dev/sdg1'''
 `pvcreate -- physical volume "/dev/sdg1" successfully created`
 '''# pvcreate /dev/sdg2'''
 `pvcreate -- physical volume "/dev/sdg2" successfully created`


6.46.3. 13.3.3. Add the new disks to the volume groups

The volumes are then added to the dev and ops volume groups:

'''# vgextend ops /dev/sdg1'''
 `vgextend -- INFO: maximum logical volume size is 255.99 Gigabyte
 vgextend -- doing automatic backup of volume group "ops"
 vgextend -- volume group "ops" successfully extended`
 '''# vgextend dev /dev/sdg2'''
 `vgextend -- INFO: maximum logical volume size is 255.99 Gigabyte
 vgextend -- doing automatic backup of volume group "dev"
 vgextend -- volume group "dev" successfully extended`
 '''# pvscan'''
 `pvscan -- reading all physical volumes (this may take a while...)
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sda"  of VG "dev"   [1.95 GB / 0 free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdb"  of VG "sales" [1.95 GB / 0 free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdc"  of VG "ops"   [1.95 GB / 44 MB free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdd"  of VG "dev"   [1.95 GB / 0 free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sde1" of VG "ops"   [996 MB / 52 MB free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sde2" of VG "sales" [996 MB / 944 MB free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdf1" of VG "ops"   [996 MB / 0 free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdf2" of VG "dev"   [996 MB / 72 MB free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdg1" of VG "ops"   [996 MB / 996 MB free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdg2" of VG "dev"   [996 MB / 996 MB free]
 pvscan -- total: 10 [13.67 GB] / in use: 10 [13.67 GB] / in no VG: 0 [0]`


6.46.4. 13.3.4. Extend the file systems

The next thing to do is to extend the file systems so that the users can make use of the extra space.

There are tools to allow online-resizing of ext2 file systems but here we take the safe route and unmount the two file systems before resizing them:

'''# umount /mnt/ops/batch
 # umount /mnt/dev/users'''

We then use the e2fsadm command to resize the logical volume and the ext2 file system on one operation. We are using ext2resize instead of resize2fs (which is the default command for e2fsadm) so we define the environment variable E2FSADM_RESIZE_CMD to tell e2fsadm to use that command.

'''# export E2FSADM_RESIZE_CMD=ext2resize
 # e2fsadm /dev/ops/batch -L+500M'''
 `e2fsck 1.18, 11-Nov-1999 for EXT2 FS 0.5b, 95/08/09
 Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes
 Pass 2: Checking directory structure
 Pass 3: Checking directory connectivity
 Pass 4: Checking reference counts
 Pass 5: Checking group summary information
 /dev/ops/batch: 11/131072 files (0.0<!--  non-contiguous), 4127/262144 blocks
 lvextend -- extending logical volume "/dev/ops/batch" to 1.49 GB
 lvextend -- doing automatic backup of volume group "ops"
 lvextend -- logical volume "/dev/ops/batch" successfully extended
 ext2resize v1.1.15 - 2000/08/08 for EXT2FS 0.5b
 e2fsadm -- ext2fs in logical volume "/dev/ops/batch" successfully extended to 1.49 GB`
 '''# e2fsadm /dev/dev/users -L+900M'''
 `e2fsck 1.18, 11-Nov-1999 for EXT2 FS 0.5b, 95/08/09
 Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes
 Pass 2: Checking directory structure
 Pass 3: Checking directory connectivity
 Pass 4: Checking reference counts
 Pass 5: Checking group summary information
 /dev/dev/users: 12/262144 files (0.0% non-contiguous), 275245/524288 blocks
 lvextend -- extending logical volume "/dev/dev/users" to 2.88 GB
 lvextend -- doing automatic backup of volume group "dev"
 lvextend -- logical volume "/dev/dev/users" successfully extended
 ext2resize v1.1.15 - 2000/08/08 for EXT2FS 0.5b
 e2fsadm -- ext2fs in logical volume "/dev/dev/users" successfully extended to 2.88 GB`


6.46.5. 13.3.5. Remount the extended volumes

We can now remount the file systems and see that the is plenty of space.

'''# mount /dev/ops/batch
 # mount /dev/dev/users
 # df'''
 `Filesystem           1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
 /dev/dev/cvs           1342492    516468    757828  41% /mnt/dev/cvs
 /dev/dev/users         2969360   2060036    909324  69% /mnt/dev/users
 /dev/dev/build         1548144   1023041    525103  66% /mnt/dev/build
 /dev/ops/databases     2890692   2302417    588275  79% /mnt/ops/databases
 /dev/sales/users       2064208    871214   1192994  42% /mnt/sales/users
 /dev/ops/batch         1535856    897122    638734  58% /mnt/ops/batch`


6.47. 13.4. Taking a Backup Using Snapshots

Following on from the previous example we now want to use the extra space in the "ops" volume group to make a database backup every evening. To ensure that the data that goes onto the tape is consistent we use an LVM snapshot logical volume.

A snapshot volume is a special type of volume that presents all the data that was in the volume at the time the snapshot was created. For a more detailed description, see [#snapshotintro Section 3.8], Snapshots. This means we can back up that volume without having to worry about data being changed while the backup is going on, and we don't have to take the database volume offline while the backup is taking place.

note.jpg

In LVM1, this type of volume was read-only, but LVM2 creates read/write snapshots by default.


6.47.1. 13.4.1. Create the snapshot volume

There is a little over 500 Megabytes of free space in the "ops" volume group, so we will use all of it to allocate space for the snapshot logical volume. A snapshot volume can be as large or a small as you like but it must be large enough to hold all the changes that are likely to happen to the original volume during the lifetime of the snapshot. So here, allowing 500 megabytes of changes to the database volume which should be plenty.

'''# lvcreate -L592M -s -n dbbackup /dev/ops/databases '''
 `lvcreate -- WARNING: the snapshot must be disabled if it gets full
 lvcreate -- INFO: using default snapshot chunk size of 64 KB for "/dev/ops/dbbackup"
 lvcreate -- doing automatic backup of "ops"
 lvcreate -- logical volume "/dev/ops/dbbackup" successfully created`

warning.jpg

Full snapshot are automatically disabled

If the snapshot logical volume becomes full it will be dropped (become unusable) so it is vitally important to allocate enough space. The amount of space necessary is dependent on the usage of the snapshot, so there is no set recipe to follow for this. If the snapshot size equals the origin size, it will never overflow.


6.47.2. 13.4.2. Mount the snapshot volume

We can now create a mount-point and mount the volume

'''# mkdir /mnt/ops/dbbackup
 # mount /dev/ops/dbbackup /mnt/ops/dbbackup'''
 `mount: block device /dev/ops/dbbackup is write-protected, mounting read-only`

If you are using XFS as the filesystem you will need to add the nouuid option to the mount command:

'''# mount /dev/ops/dbbackup /mnt/ops/dbbackup -onouuid,ro'''


6.47.3. 13.4.3. Do the backup

I assume you will have a more sophisticated backup strategy than this!

'''# tar -cf /dev/rmt0 /mnt/ops/dbbackup'''
 `tar: Removing leading `/' from member names`


6.47.4. 13.4.4. Remove the snapshot

When the backup has finished you can now unmount the volume and remove it from the system. You should remove snapshot volume when you have finished with them because they take a copy of all data written to the original volume and this can hurt performance.

'''# umount /mnt/ops/dbbackup
 # lvremove /dev/ops/dbbackup '''
 `lvremove -- do you really want to remove "/dev/ops/dbbackup"? [y/n]: `y
 `lvremove -- doing automatic backup of volume group "ops"
               lvremove -- logical volume "/dev/ops/dbbackup" successfully removed`


6.48. 13.5. Removing an Old Disk

Say you have an old IDE drive on /dev/hdb. You want to remove that old disk but a lot of files are on it.

../images/caution.gif

Backup Your System

You should always backup your system before attempting a pvmove operation.


6.48.1. 13.5.1. Distributing Old Extents to Existing Disks in Volume Group

If you have enough free extents on the other disks in the volume group, you have it easy. Simply run

'''# pvmove /dev/hdb'''
 `pvmove -- moving physical extents in active volume group "dev"
 pvmove -- WARNING: moving of active logical volumes may cause data loss!`
 `pvmove -- do you want to continue? [y/n]` y
 `pvmove -- 249 extents of physical volume "/dev/hdb" successfully moved`
  • This will move the allocated physical extents from /dev/hdb onto the rest of the disks in the volume group.

note.jpg

pvmove is Slow

Be aware that pvmove is quite slow as it has to copy the contents of a disk block by block to one or more disks. If you want more steady status reports from pvmove, use the -v flag.


6.48.1.1. 13.5.1.1. Remove the unused disk

We can now remove the old IDE disk from the volume group.

'''# vgreduce dev /dev/hdb'''
 `vgreduce -- doing automatic backup of volume group "dev"
 vgreduce -- volume group "dev" successfully reduced by physical volume:
 vgreduce -- /dev/hdb`
  • The drive can now be either physically removed when the machine is next powered down or reallocated to other users.


6.48.2. 13.5.2. Distributing Old Extents to a New Replacement Disk

If you do not have enough free physical extents to distribute the old physical extents to, you will have to add a disk to the volume group and move the extents to it.


6.48.2.1. 13.5.2.1. Prepare the disk

First, you need to pvcreate the new disk to make it available to LVM. In this recipe we show that you don't need to partition a disk to be able to use it.

'''# pvcreate /dev/sdf'''
 `pvcreate -- physical volume "/dev/sdf" successfully created`


6.48.2.2. 13.5.2.2. Add it to the volume group

As developers use a lot of disk space this is a good volume group to add it into.

'''# vgextend dev /dev/sdf'''
 `vgextend -- INFO: maximum logical volume size is 255.99 Gigabyte
 vgextend -- doing automatic backup of volume group "dev"
 vgextend -- volume group "dev" successfully extended`


6.48.2.3. 13.5.2.3. Move the data

Next we move the data from the old disk onto the new one. Note that it is not necessary to unmount the file system before doing this. Although it is *highly* recommended that you do a full backup before attempting this operation in case of a power outage or some other problem that may interrupt it. The pvmove command can take a considerable amount of time to complete and it also exacts a performance hit on the two volumes so, although it isn't necessary, it is advisable to do this when the volumes are not too busy.

'''# pvmove /dev/hdb /dev/sdf'''
 `pvmove -- moving physical extents in active volume group "dev"
 pvmove -- WARNING: moving of active logical volumes may cause data loss!`
 `pvmove -- do you want to continue? [y/n]` y
 `pvmove -- 249 extents of physical volume "/dev/hdb" successfully moved`


6.48.2.4. 13.5.2.4. Remove the unused disk

We can now remove the old IDE disk from the volume group.

'''# vgreduce dev /dev/hdb'''
 `vgreduce -- doing automatic backup of volume group "dev"
 vgreduce -- volume group "dev" successfully reduced by physical volume:
 vgreduce -- /dev/hdb`
  • The drive can now be either physically removed when the machine is next powered down or reallocated to some other users.


6.49. 13.6. Moving a volume group to another system

It is quite easy to move a whole volume group to another system if, for example, a user department acquires a new server. To do this we use the vgexport and vgimport commands.

note.jpg

vgexport/vgimport is not necessary to move drives from one system to another. It is an administrative policy tool to prevent access to volumes in the time it takes to move them.


6.49.1. 13.6.1. Unmount the file system

First, make sure that no users are accessing files on the active volume, then unmount it

'''# unmount /mnt/design/users'''


6.49.2. 13.6.2. Mark the volume group inactive

Marking the volume group inactive removes it from the kernel and prevents any further activity on it.

'''# vgchange -an design'''
 `vgchange -- volume group "design" successfully deactivated`


6.49.3. 13.6.3. Export the volume group

It is now necessary to export the volume group. This prevents it from being accessed on the old host system and prepares it to be removed.

'''# vgexport design'''
 `vgexport -- volume group "design" successfully exported`


6.49.4. 13.6.4. Import the volume group

When plugged into the new system it becomes /dev/sdb so an initial pvscan shows:

'''# pvscan'''
 `pvscan -- reading all physical volumes (this may take a while...)
 pvscan -- inactive PV "/dev/sdb1"  is in EXPORTED VG "design" [996 MB / 996 MB free]
 pvscan -- inactive PV "/dev/sdb2"  is in EXPORTED VG "design" [996 MB / 244 MB free]
 pvscan -- total: 2 [1.95 GB] / in use: 2 [1.95 GB] / in no VG: 0 [0]`

If you are importing on an LVM 2 system, run:

'''# vgimport design'''
 `  Volume group "vg" successfully imported`

If you are importing on an LVM 1 system, add the PVs that need to be imported:

'''# vgimport design /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdb2'''
 `vgimport -- doing automatic backup of volume group "design"
 vgimport -- volume group "design" successfully imported and activated`


6.49.5. 13.6.5. Activate the volume group

You must activate the volume group before you can access it.

'''# vgchange -ay design'''


6.49.6. 13.6.6. Mount the file system

'''# mkdir -p /mnt/design/users
 # mount /dev/design/users /mnt/design/users'''


6.50. 13.7. Splitting a volume group

There is a new group of users "design" to add to the system. One way of dealing with this is to create a new volume group to hold their data. There are no new disks but there is plenty of free space on the existing disks that can be reallocated.


6.50.1. 13.7.1. Determine free space

'''# pvscan '''
 `pvscan -- reading all physical volumes (this may take a while...)
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sda"  of VG "dev"   [1.95 GB / 0 free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdb"  of VG "sales" [1.95 GB / 1.27 GB free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdc"  of VG "ops"   [1.95 GB / 564 MB free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdd"  of VG "dev"   [1.95 GB / 0 free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sde"  of VG "ops"   [1.95 GB / 1.9 GB free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdf"  of VG "dev"   [1.95 GB / 1.33 GB free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdg1" of VG "ops"   [996 MB / 432 MB free]
 pvscan -- ACTIVE   PV "/dev/sdg2" of VG "dev"   [996 MB / 632 MB free]
 pvscan -- total: 8 [13.67 GB] / in use: 8 [13.67 GB] / in no VG: 0 [0]`


6.50.2. 13.7.2. Move data off the disks to be used

Some space is still used on the chosen volumes so it is necessary to move that used space off onto some others.

Move all the used physical extents from /dev/sdg1 to /dev/sde and from /dev/sdg2 to /dev/sdf

'''# pvmove /dev/sdg1 /dev/sde'''
 `pvmove -- moving physical extents in active volume group "ops"
 pvmove -- WARNING: moving of active logical volumes may cause data loss!`
 `pvmove -- do you want to continue? [y/n]` y
 `pvmove -- doing automatic backup of volume group "ops"
 pvmove -- 141 extents of physical volume "/dev/sdg1" successfully moved`
 '''# pvmove /dev/sdg2 /dev/sdf'''
 `pvmove -- moving physical extents in active volume group "dev"
 pvmove -- WARNING: moving of active logical volumes may cause data loss!`
 `pvmove -- do you want to continue? [y/n]` y
 `pvmove -- doing automatic backup of volume group "dev"
 pvmove -- 91 extents of physical volume "/dev/sdg2" successfully moved`


6.50.3. 13.7.3. Create the new volume group

Now, split /dev/sdg2 from dev and add it into a new group called "design". it is possible to do this using vgreduce and vgcreate but the vgsplit command combines the two.

'''# vgsplit dev design /dev/sdg2'''
 `vgsplit -- doing automatic backup of volume group "dev"
 vgsplit -- doing automatic backup of volume group "design"
 vgsplit -- volume group "dev" successfully split into "dev" and "design"`


6.50.4. 13.7.4. Remove remaining volume

Next, remove /dev/sdg1 from ops and add it into design.

'''# vgreduce ops /dev/sdg1'''
 `vgreduce -- doing automatic backup of volume group "ops"
 vgreduce -- volume group "ops" successfully reduced by physical volume:
 vgreduce -- /dev/sdg1`
 '''# vgextend design /dev/sdg1'''
 `vgextend -- INFO: maximum logical volume size is 255.99 Gigabyte
 vgextend -- doing automatic backup of volume group "design"
 vgextend -- volume group "design" successfully extended`


6.50.5. 13.7.5. Create new logical volume

Now create a logical volume. Rather than allocate all of the available space, leave some spare in case it is needed elsewhere.

'''# lvcreate -L750M -n users design'''
 `lvcreate -- rounding up size to physical extent boundary "752 MB"
 lvcreate -- doing automatic backup of "design"
 lvcreate -- logical volume "/dev/design/users" successfully created`


6.50.6. 13.7.6. Make a file system on the volume

'''# mke2fs /dev/design/users'''
 `mke2fs 1.18, 11-Nov-1999 for EXT2 FS 0.5b, 95/08/09
 Filesystem label=
 OS type: Linux
 Block size=4096 (log=2)
 Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
 96384 inodes, 192512 blocks
 9625 blocks (5.00<!-- ) reserved for the super user
 First data block=0
 6 block groups
 32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
 16064 inodes per group
 Superblock backups stored on blocks: 
         32768, 98304, 163840
 Writing inode tables: done                            
 Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done`


6.50.7. 13.7.7. Mount the new volume

'''# mkdir -p /mnt/design/users mount /dev/design/users /mnt/design/users/'''

It's also a good idea to add an entry for this file system in your /etc/fstab file as follows:

/dev/design/user
 /mnt/design/users   ext2    defaults        1 2


6.51. 13.8. Converting a root filesystem to LVM 1

../images/caution.gif

Backup Your System

It is strongly recommended that you take a full backup of your system before attempting to convert to root on LVM 1.

warning.jpg

Upgrade Complications

Having your root filesystem on LVM 1 can significantly complicate upgrade procedures (depending on your distribution) so it should not be attempted lightly. Particularly, you must consider how you will insure that the LVM 1 kernel module (if you do not have LVM 1 compiled into the kernel) as well as the vgscan/vgchange tools are available before, during, and after the upgrade.

warning.jpg

Recovery Complications

Having your root filesystem on LVM 1 can significantly complicate recovery of damaged filesystems. If you lose your initrd, it will be very difficult to boot your system. You will need to have a recover disk that contains the kernel, LVM 1 module, and LVM 1 tools, as well as any tools necessary to recover a damaged filesystem. Be sure to make regular backups and have an up-to-date alternative boot method that allows for recovery of LVM 1.

In this example the whole system was installed in a single root partition with the exception of /boot. The system had a 2 gig disk partitioned as:

/dev/hda1  /boot 
 /dev/hda2  swap
 /dev/hda3  /

The / partition covered all of the disk not used by /boot and swap. An important prerequisite of this procedure is that the root partition is less that half full (so that a copy of it can be created in a logical volume). If this is not the case then a second disk drive should be used. The procedure in that case is similar but there is no need to shrink the existing root partition and /dev/hda4 should be replaced with (eg) /dev/hdb1 in the examples.

To do this it is easiest to use GNU parted. This software allows you to grow and shrink partitions that contain filesystems. It is possible to use resize2fs and fdisk to do this but GNU parted makes it much less prone to error. It may be included in your distribution, if not you can download it from ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/parted.

Once you have parted on your system AND YOU HAVE BACKED THE SYSTEM UP:


6.51.1. 13.8.1. Boot single user

Boot into single user mode (type linux S at the LILO prompt) This is important. Booting single-user ensures that the root filesystem is mounted read-only and no programs are accessing the disk.


6.51.2. 13.8.2. Run Parted

Run parted to shrink the root partition Do this so there is room on the disk for a complete copy of it in a logical volume. In this example a 1.8 gig partition is shrunk to 1 gigabyte This displays the sizes and names of the partitions on the disk

'''# parted /dev/hda'''
 `(parted)` p
 .
 .
 .

Now resize the partition:

`(parted)` resize 3 145 999

Create a new partition

`(parted)` mkpart primary ext2 1000 1999

Quit parted

`(parted)` q


6.51.3. 13.8.3. Reboot

Reboot the system


6.51.4. 13.8.4. Verify kernel config options

Make sure that the kernel you are currently running works with LVM 1 and has CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM and CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD set in the config file.


6.51.5. 13.8.5. Adjust partition type

Change the partition type on the newly created partition from Linux to LVM (8e). Parted doesn't understand LVM 1 partitions so this has to be done using fdisk.

'''# fdisk /dev/hda'''
 `Command (m for help): `t
 `Partition number (1-4): `4
 `Hex code (type L to list codes): `8e
 `Changed system type of partition 4 to 8e (Unknown)`
 `Command (m for help): `w


6.51.6. 13.8.6. Set up LVM 1 for the new scheme


6.51.7. 13.8.7. Create the Filesystem

Make a filesystem in the logical volume and copy the root files onto it.

'''# mke2fs /dev/vg/root
 # mount /dev/vg/root /mnt/
 # find / -xdev | cpio -pvmd /mnt'''


6.51.8. 13.8.8. Update /etc/fstab

Edit /mnt/etc/fstab on the new root so that / is mounted on /dev/vg/root. For example:

  /dev/hda3       /    ext2       defaults 1 1

  /dev/vg/root    /    ext2       defaults 1 1


6.51.9. 13.8.9. Create an LVM 1 initial RAM disk

'''# lvmcreate_initrd'''

Make sure you note the name that lvmcreate_initrd calls the initrd image. It should be in /boot. lass="line867">




6.51.10. 13.8.10. Update /etc/lilo.conf

Add an entry in /etc/lilo.conf for LVM 1. This should look similar to the following:

  image   = /boot/KERNEL_IMAGE_NAME
   label   = lvm
   root    = /dev/vg/root
   initrd  = /boot/INITRD_IMAGE_NAME
   ramdisk = 8192

lvmcreate_initrd -- making loopback file (6189 kB)

You should copy this new lilo.conf onto /etc in the new root fs as well.

'''# cp /etc/lilo.conf /mnt/etc/'''


6.51.11. 13.8.11. Run LILO to write the new boot sector

'''# lilo'''


6.51.12. 13.8.12. Reboot to lvm

Reboot - at the LILO prompt type "lvm" The system should reboot into Linux using the newly created Logical Volume.

If that worked then you should make lvm the default LILO boot destination by adding the line

default=lvm

If it did not work then reboot normally and try to diagnose the problem. It could be a typing error in lilo.conf or LVM 1 not being available in the initial RAM disk or its kernel. Examine the message produced at boot time carefully.


6.51.13. 13.8.13. Add remainder of disk

Add the rest of the disk into LVM 1. When you are happy with this setup you can then add the old root partition to LVM 1 and spread out over the disk.

First set the partition type to 8e(LVM)

'''# fdisk /dev/hda'''
 `Command (m for help): `t
 `Partition number (1-4): `3
 `Hex code (type L to list codes): `8e
 `Changed system type of partition 3 to 8e (Unknown)`
 `Command (m for help): `w

Convert it into a PV and add it to the volume group:

'''# pvcreate /dev/hda3
 # vgextend vg /dev/hda3'''


6.52. 13.9. Recover physical volume metadata

If you get the warning "incorrect metadata area header checksum" or something about not being able to find PV with UUID foo, you probably toasted the volume group descriptor area and lvm startup can't occur.

warning.jpg

Only run on non-functional VG

Don't do this on a properly working lvm. You need to specify the correct physical volume to pvcreate or you may lose your data.

Extract the exact uuid for the PV that was overwritten from the file /etc/lvm/archive/VolumeGroupName_XXXXX.vg. (Where XXXXX represents the number of the last known good archived lvm metadata).

Use pvcreate to restore the metadata: pvcreate --uuid "<some_long_string>" --restorefile /etc/lvm/archive/VolumeGroupName_XXXXX.vg <PhysicalVolume>

If you are lucky you'll find that the on-disk lvm metadata takes at least so much space as what it was overwritten with. The above command has been know to recover a PV overwritten with mkswap. If whatever overwrote the VGDA writes past that area, LVs may be affected. In this case, fsck might be able to fix the filesystem on the LV, or you may need more drastic measures to pull data off of it. Contact your local friendly filesystem expert for help in that case.

note.jpg

pvcreate only overwrites the lvm metadata areas on disk and doesn't touch the data areas (the logical volumes).


6.53. Appendix A. Dangerous Operations

warning.jpg

Warning

Don't do this unless you're really sure of what you're doing. You'll probably lose all your data.


6.54. A.1. Restoring the VG UUIDs using uuid_fixer

If you've upgraded LVM from previous versions to early 0.9 and 0.9.1 versions of LVM and vgscan says vgscan -- no volume groups found, this is one way to fix it.


6.55. A.2. Sharing LVM volumes

warning.jpg

LVM is not cluster aware

Be very careful doing this, LVM is not currently cluster-aware and it is very easy to lose all your data.

If you have a fibre-channel or shared-SCSI environment where more than one machine has physical access to a set of disks then you can use LVM to divide these disks up into logical volumes. If you want to share data you should really be looking at [http://www.sistina.com/gfs GFS] or other cluster filesystems.

The key thing to remember when sharing volumes is that all the LVM administration must be done on one node only and that all other nodes must have LVM shut down before changing anything on the admin node. Then, when the changes have been made, it is necessary to run vgscan on the other nodes before reloading the volume groups. Also, unless you are running a cluster-aware filesystem (such as GFS) or application on the volume, only one node can mount each filesystem. It is up to you, as system administrator to enforce this, LVM will not stop you corrupting your data.

The startup sequence of each node is the same as for a single-node setup with

vgscan
 vgchange -ay

If you need to do any changes to the LVM metadata (regardless of whether it affects volumes mounted on other nodes) you must go through the following sequence. In the steps below admin node is any arbitrarily chosen node in the cluster.

Admin node                   Other nodes
 ----------                   -----------
                              Close all Logical volumes (umount)
                              vgchange -an
 <make changes, eg lvextend>
                              vgscan
                              vgchange -ay

note.jpg

VGs should be active on the admin node

You do not need to, nor should you, unload the VGs on the admin node, so this can be the node with the highest uptime requirement.

I'll say it again: Be very careful doing this


6.56. Appendix B. Reporting Errors and Bugs

Just telling us that LVM did not work does not provide us with enough information to help you. We need to know about your setup and the various components of your configuration. The first thing you should do is check the [http://lists.sistina.com/pipermail/linux-lvm/ linux-lvm mailing list archives] to see if someone else has already reported the same bug. If you do not find a bug report for a problem similar to yours you should collect as much of the following information as possible. The list is grouped into three categories of errors.

  • For compilation errors:
    1. Detail the specific version of LVM you have. If you extracted LVM from a tarball give the name of the tar file and list any patches you applied. If you acquired LVM from the Public CVS server, give the date and time you checked it out.
    2. Provide the exact error message. Copy the lines of output before the actual error message as well as the lines after. These lines occasionally give hints as to why the error occurred.
    3. List the steps, in order, that produced the error. Is the error reproducible? If you start from a clean state does the same sequence of steps reproduce the error?
  • For LVM errors:
    1. Include all of the information requested in the compilation section.
    2. Attach a short description of your hardware: types of machines and disks, disks interface (SCSI, FC, NBD). Any other tidbits about your hardware you feel is important.
    3. The command lines used with LVM to produce the error.
    4. A log file produced when running the offending commands. Make sure you have the following in your /etc/lvm/lvm.conf file:{{{

log {

  • file="/tmp/lvm2.log" level=7 activation=1
  • } }}}
    • When LVM trips a panic trap:
      1. Include all of the information requested in two sections above.
      2. Provide the debug dump for the machine. This is best accomplished if you are watching the console output of the computer over a serial link, since you can't very well copy and paste from a panic'd machine, and it is very easy to mistype something if you try to copy the output by hand.

This can be a lot of information. If you end up with more than a couple of files, tar and gzip them into a single archive. Submit a link to where this file can be found to the appropriate mailing list (see [#Maillists Section C.1]) along with a short description of the error. If you do not have a public web or ftp site that you can post the information to, you can try to submit the file to the list.


6.58. C.1. Mail lists

Before you post to any of our lists please read the all of this document and check the archives to see if your question has already been answered. Please post in text only to our lists, fancy formated messages are near impossible to read if someone else is not running a mail client that understands it. Standard mailing list etiquette applies. Incomplete questions or configuration data make it very hard for us to answer your questions.

LVM Discussion Mailing Lists

linux-lvm:: This list is aimed at user-related questions and comments. You may be able to get the answers you need from other people who have the same issues. Open discussion is encouraged. Bug reports should be sent to this list. Subscribe using the [http://www.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo/linux-lvm web interface]. Look at the [http://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-lvm/ archives]dm-devel:: This list is not specifically for lvm, but since device mapper is used by LVM 2, it is mentioned here. Subscribe using the [http://www.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo/dm-devel web interface]. Look at the [http://www.redhat.com/archives/dm-devel/ archives]

LVM-Related Commit Lists

lvm2-commit:: This list gets messages automatically whenever someone commits to the lvm2 cvs tree. Its main purpose is to keep up with the cvs tree. Look at the [http://sources.redhat.com/ml/lvm2-cvs/ archives]lvm-commit:: This list gets messages automatically whenever someone commits to the lvm cvs tree. Its main purpose is to keep up with the cvs tree. Look at the [http://sources.redhat.com/ml/lvm-cvs/ archives]dm-commit:: This list gets messages automatically whenever someone commits to the dm cvs tree. Its main purpose is to keep up with the cvs tree. Look at the [http://sources.redhat.com/ml/dm-cvs/ archives]

Discontinued Lists

lvm-devel:: This list has been discontinued; please use linux-lvm for lvm development discussion.lvm-bugs:: This list has been discontinued; Bug reports should be sent to the linux-lvm list.


LVM Links:


6.60. Appendix D. GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.2, November 2002

Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


6.61. D.1. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.


6.62. D.2. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.

The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.


6.63. D.3. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.


6.64. D.4. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.


6.65. D.5. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

  1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
  2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
  3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
  4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
  5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
  6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the [#gfdl-addendum Addendum] below.
  7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
  8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
  9. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
  10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
  11. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
  12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
  13. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
  14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
  15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


6.66. D.6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in [#gfdl-4 section 4] above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".


6.67. D.7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.


6.68. D.8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.


6.69. D.9. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.


6.70. D.10. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.


6.71. D.11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.


6.72. D.12. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.

LVM-HOWTO (last edited 2008-12-17 08:37:41 by jdd)