Modification unauthorized. Use Discussion page if necessary

Discussion Page Content

Original HOWTO

  The Unicode HOWTO
  Bruno Haible, <>
  v1.0, 23 January 2001

  This document describes how to change your Linux system so it uses
  UTF-8 as text encoding. - This is work in progress. Any tips, patches,
  pointers, URLs are very welcome.

  Table of Contents

  1. Introduction

     1.1 Why Unicode?
     1.2 Unicode encodings
        1.2.1 Footnotes for C/C++ developers
     1.3 Related resources

  2. Display setup

     2.1 Linux console
     2.2 X11 Foreign fonts
     2.3 X11 Unicode fonts
     2.4 Unicode xterm
     2.5 TrueType fonts
     2.6 Miscellaneous

  3. Locale setup

     3.1 Files & the kernel
     3.2 Upgrading the C library
     3.3 General data conversion
     3.4 Locale environment variables
     3.5 Creating the locale support files

  4. Specific applications

     4.1 Shells
        4.1.1 bash
     4.2 Networking
        4.2.1 telnet
        4.2.2 kermit
     4.3 Browsers
        4.3.1 Netscape
        4.3.2 Mozilla
        4.3.3 Amaya
        4.3.4 lynx
        4.3.5 w3m
        4.3.6 Test pages
     4.4 Editors
        4.4.1 yudit
  Fonts for yudit
        4.4.2 vim
        4.4.3 cooledit
        4.4.4 emacs
        4.4.5 xemacs
        4.4.6 nedit
        4.4.7 xedit
        4.4.8 axe
        4.4.9 pico
        4.4.10 mined98
        4.4.11 qemacs
     4.5 Mailers
        4.5.1 pine
        4.5.2 kmail
        4.5.3 Netscape Communicator
        4.5.4 emacs (rmail, vm)
        4.5.5 mutt
        4.5.6 exmh
     4.6 Text processing
        4.6.1 groff
        4.6.2 TeX
     4.7 Databases
        4.7.1 PostgreSQL
        4.7.2 Interbase
     4.8 Other text-mode applications
        4.8.1 less
        4.8.2 lv
        4.8.3 expand
        4.8.4 col, colcrt, colrm, column, rev, ul
        4.8.5 figlet
        4.8.6 Base utilities
     4.9 Other X11 applications

  5. Printing

     5.1 Printing using TrueType fonts
        5.1.1 uniprint
        5.1.2 wprint
        5.1.3 Comparison
     5.2 Printing using fixed-size fonts
        5.2.1 txtbdf2ps
     5.3 The classical approach
        5.3.1 TeX, Omega
        5.3.2 DocBook
        5.3.3 groff -Tps
     5.4 No luck with...
        5.4.1 Netscape's "Print..."
        5.4.2 Mozilla's "Print..."
        5.4.3 html2ps
        5.4.4 a2ps
        5.4.5 enscript

  6. Making your programs Unicode aware

     6.1 C/C++
        6.1.1 For normal text handling
  Portability notes
  The libutf8 library
  The Plan9 way
        6.1.2 For graphical user interface
        6.1.3 For advanced text handling
        6.1.4 For conversion
        6.1.5 Other approaches
     6.2 Java
     6.3 Lisp
     6.4 Ada95
     6.5 Python
     6.6 JavaScript/ECMAscript
     6.7 Tcl
     6.8 Perl
     6.9 Related reading

  7. Other sources of information

     7.1 Mailing lists
        7.1.1 linux-utf8
        7.1.2 li18nux
        7.1.3 unicode
        7.1.4 X11 internationalization
        7.1.5 X11 fonts


  1.  Introduction

  1.1.  Why Unicode?

  People in different countries use different characters to represent
  the words of their native languages. Nowadays most applications,
  including email systems and web browsers, are 8-bit clean, i.e. they
  can operate on and display text correctly provided that it is
  represented in an 8-bit character set, like ISO-8859-1.

  There are far more than 256 characters in the world - think of
  cyrillic, hebrew, arabic, chinese, japanese, korean and thai -, and
  new characters are being invented now and then. The problems that come
  up for users are:

  ·  It is impossible to store text with characters from different
     character sets in the same document. For example, I can cite
     russian papers in a German or French publication if I use TeX, xdvi
     and PostScript, but I cannot do it in plain text.

  ·  As long as every document has its own character set, and
     recognition of the character set is not automatic, manual user
     intervention is inevitable. For example, in order to view the
     homepage of the XTeamLinux distribution I had to tell Netscape that the web
     page is coded in GB2312.

  ·  New symbols like the Euro are being invented. ISO has issued a new
     standard ISO-8859-15, which is mostly like ISO-8859-1 except that
     it removes some rarely used characters (the old currency sign) and
     replaced it with the Euro sign. If users adopt this standard, they
     have documents in different character sets on their disk, and they
     start having to think about it daily. But computers should make
     things simpler, not more complicated.

  The solution of this problem is the adoption of a world-wide usable
  character set. This character set is Unicode
  For more info about Unicode, do `man 7 unicode' (manpage contained in
  the man-pages-1.20 package).

  1.2.  Unicode encodings

  This reduces the user's problem of dealing with character sets to a
  technical problem: How to transport Unicode characters using the 8-bit
  bytes?  8-bit units are the smallest addressing units of most
  computers and also the unit used by TCP/IP network connections. The
  use of 1 byte to represent 1 character is, however, an accident of
  history, caused by the fact that computer development started in
  Europe and the U.S. where 96 characters were found to be sufficient
  for a long time.

  There are basically four ways to encode Unicode characters in bytes:

        128 characters are encoded using 1 byte (the ASCII characters).
        1920 characters are encoded using 2 bytes (Roman, Greek,
        Cyrillic, Coptic, Armenian, Hebrew, Arabic characters).  63488
        characters are encoded using 3 bytes (Chinese and Japanese among
        others).  The other 2147418112 characters (not assigned yet) can
        be encoded using 4, 5 or 6 characters.  For more info about
        UTF-8, do `man 7 utf-8' (manpage contained in the man-pages-1.20

        Every character is represented as two bytes.  This encoding can
        only represent the first 65536 Unicode characters.

        This is an extension of UCS-2 which can represent 1112064
        Unicode characters. The first 65536 Unicode characters are
        represented as two bytes, the other ones as four bytes.

        Every character is represented as four bytes.

  The space requirements for encoding a text, compared to encodings
  currently in use (8 bit per character for European languages, more for
  Chinese/Japanese/Korean), is as follows. This has an influence on disk
  storage space and network download speed (when no form of compression
  is used).

        No change for US ASCII, just a few percent more for ISO-8859-1,
        50% more for Chinese/Japanese/Korean, 100% more for Greek and

     UCS-2 and UTF-16
        No change for Chinese/Japanese/Korean. 100% more for US ASCII
        and ISO-8859-1, Greek and Cyrillic.

        100% more for Chinese/Japanese/Korean. 300% more for US ASCII
        and ISO-8859-1, Greek and Cyrillic.

  Given the penalty for US and European documents caused by UCS-2,
  UTF-16, and UCS-4, it seems unlikely that these encodings have a
  potential for wide-scale use. The Microsoft Win32 API supports the
  UCS-2 encoding since 1995 (at least), yet this encoding has not been
  widely adopted for documents - SJIS remains prevalent in Japan.

  UTF-8 on the other hand has the potential for wide-scale use, since it
  doesn't penalize US and European users, and since many text processing
  programs don't need to be changed for UTF-8 support.

  In the following, we will describe how to change your Linux system so
  it uses UTF-8 as text encoding.

  1.2.1.  Footnotes for C/C++ developers

  The Microsoft Win32 approach makes it easy for developers to produce
  Unicode versions of their programs: You "#define UNICODE" at the top
  of your program and then change many occurrences of `char' to `TCHAR',
  until your program compiles without warnings. The problem with it is
  that you end up with two versions of your program: one which
  understands UCS-2 text but no 8-bit encodings, and one which
  understands only old 8-bit encodings.

  Moreover, there is an endianness issue with UCS-2 and UCS-4. The IANA
  character set registry
  notes/iana/assignments/character-sets says about ISO-10646-UCS-2:
  "this needs to specify network byte order: the standard does not
  specify". Network byte order is big endian. And RFC 2152 is even
  clearer: "ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993(E) specifies that when characters the
  UCS-2 form are serialized as octets, that the most significant octet
  appear first." Whereas Microsoft, in its C/C++ development tools,
  recommends to use machine-dependent endianness (i.e. little endian on
  ix86 processors) and either a byte-order mark at the beginning of the
  document, or some statistical heuristics(!).

  The UTF-8 approach on the other hand keeps `char*' as the standard C
  string type. As a result, your program will handle US ASCII text,
  independently of any environment variables, and will handle both
  ISO-8859-1 and UTF-8 encoded text provided the LANG environment
  variable is set accordingly.

  1.3.  Related resources

  Markus Kuhn's very up-to-date resource list:



  Roman Czyborra's overview of Unicode, UTF-8 and UTF-8 aware programs:

  Some example UTF-8 files:

  ·  In Markus Kuhn's ucs-fonts package: quickbrown.txt, UTF-8-test.txt,



  ·  The file iso10646 in the Kosta Kostis' trans-1.1.1 package



  2.  Display setup

  We assume you have already adapted your Linux console and X11
  configuration to your keyboard and locale. This is explained in the
  Danish/International HOWTO, and in the other national HOWTOs: Finnish,
  French, German, Italian, Polish, Slovenian, Spanish, Cyrillic, Hebrew,
  Chinese, Thai, Esperanto. But please do not follow the advice given in
  the Thai HOWTO, to pretend you were using ISO-8859-1 characters
  (U0000..U00FF) when what you are typing are actually Thai characters
  (U0E01..U0E5B). Doing so will only cause problems when you switch to

  2.1.  Linux console

  I'm not talking much about the Linux console here, because on those
  machines on which I don't have xdm running, I use it only to type my
  login name, my password, and "xinit".

  Anyway, the kbd-0.99 package and a
  heavily extended version, the console-tools-0.2.3 package
  tools-0.2.3.tar.gz contains in the kbd-0.99/src/ (or console-
  tools-0.2.3/screenfonttools/) directory two programs: `unicode_start'
  and `unicode_stop'. When you call `unicode_start', the console's
  screen output is interpreted as UTF-8. Also, the keyboard is put into
  Unicode mode (see "man kbd_mode"). In this mode, Unicode characters
  typed as Alt-x1 ... Alt-xn (where x1,...,xn are digits on the numeric
  keypad) will be emitted in UTF-8. If your keyboard or, more precisely,
  your normal keymap has non-ASCII letter keys (like the German Umlaute)
  which you would like to be CapsLockable, you need to apply the kernel
  patch linux-2.2.9-keyboard.diff or linux-2.3.12-keyboard.diff.

  You will want to use display characters from different scripts on the
  same screen. For this, you need a Unicode console font. The and
  data-1999.08.29.tar.gz packages contain a font
  (LatArCyrHeb-{08,14,16,19}.psf) which covers Latin, Cyrillic, Hebrew,
  Arabic scripts. It covers ISO 8859 parts 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10 all at
  once. To install it, copy it to /usr/lib/kbd/consolefonts/ and execute
  "/usr/bin/setfont /usr/lib/kbd/consolefonts/LatArCyrHeb-14.psf".

  A more flexible approach is given by Dmitry Yu. Bolkhovityanov
  <> in and  To
  work around the constraint that a VGA font can only cover 512
  characters simultaneously, he provides a rich Unicode font (2279
  characters, covering Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Armenian, IPA,
  math symbols, arrows, and more) in the typical 8x16 size and a script
  which permits to extract any 512 characters as a console font.

  If you want cut&paste to work with UTF-8 consoles, you need the patch
  linux-2.3.12-console.diff from Edmund Thomas Grimley Evans and
  Stanislav Voronyi.

  In April 2000, Edmund Thomas Grimley Evans <> has
  implemented an UTF-8 console terminal emulator. It uses Unicode fonts
  and relies on the Linux frame buffer device.

  2.2.  X11 Foreign fonts

  Don't hesitate to install Cyrillic, Chinese, Japanese etc. fonts. Even
  if they are not Unicode fonts, they will help in displaying Unicode
  documents: at least Netscape Communicator 4 and Java will make use of
  foreign fonts when available.

  The following programs are useful when installing fonts:

  ·  "mkfontdir directory" prepares a font directory for use by the X
     server, needs to be executed after installing fonts in a directory.

  ·  "xset -q | sed -e '1,/^Font Path:/d' | sed -e '2,$d' -e 's/^  //'"
     displays the X server's current font path.

  ·  "xset fp+ directory" adds a directory to the X server's current
     font path.  To add a directory permanently, add a "FontPath" line
     to your /etc/XF86Config file, in section "Files".

  ·  "xset fp rehash" needs to be executed after calling mkfontdir on a
     directory that is already contained in the X server's current font

  ·  "xfontsel" allows you to browse the installed fonts by selecting
     various font properties.

  ·  "xlsfonts -fn fontpattern" lists all fonts matching a font pattern.
     Also displays various font properties. In particular, "xlsfonts -ll
     -fn font" lists the font properties CHARSET_REGISTRY and
     CHARSET_ENCODING, which together determine the font's encoding.

  ·  "xfd -fn font" displays a font page by page.

  The following fonts are freely available (not a complete list):

  ·  The ones contained in XFree86, sometimes packaged in separate
     packages.  For example, SuSE has only normal 75dpi fonts in the
     base `xf86' package.  The other fonts are in the packages
     `xfnt100', `xfntbig', `xfntcyr', `xfntscl'.

  ·  The Emacs international fonts, As already
     mentioned, they are useful even if you prefer XEmacs to GNU Emacs
     or don't use any Emacs at all.

  2.3.  X11 Unicode fonts

  Applications wishing to display text belonging to different scripts
  (like Cyrillic and Greek) at the same time, can do so by using
  different X fonts for the various pieces of text. This is what
  Netscape Communicator and Java do. However, this approach is more
  complicated, because instead of working with `Font' and `XFontStruct',
  the programmer has to deal with `XFontSet', and also because not all
  fonts in the font set need to have the same dimensions.

  ·  Markus Kuhn has assembled fixed-width 75dpi fonts with Unicode
     encoding covering Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Armenian, Georgian,
     Hebrew scripts and many symbols.  They cover ISO 8859 parts
     1,2,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,13,14,15,16 all at once.  These fonts are
     required for running xterm in utf-8 mode. They are now contained in
     XFree86 4.0.1, therefore you need to install them manually only if
     you have an older XFree86 3.x version.

  ·  Markus Kuhn has also assembled double-width fixed 75dpi fonts with
     Unicode encoding covering Chinese, Japanese and Korean. These fonts
     are contained in XFree86 4.0.1 as well.

  ·  Roman Czyborra has assembled an 8x16 / 16x16 75dpi font with
     Unicode encoding covering a huge part of Unicode. Download
     unifont.hex.gz and hex2bdf from  It
     is not fixed-width: 8 pixels wide for European characters, 16
     pixels wide for Chinese characters. Installation instructions:

  $ gunzip unifont.hex.gz
  $ hex2bdf < unifont.hex > unifont.bdf
  $ bdftopcf -o unifont.pcf unifont.bdf
  $ gzip -9 unifont.pcf
  # cp unifont.pcf.gz /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc
  # cd /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc
  # mkfontdir
  # xset fp rehash

  ·  Primoz Peterlin has assembled an ETL family fonts covering Latin,
     Greek, Cyrillic, Armenian, Georgian, Hebrew scripts. Use the "bdftopcf"
     program in order to install it.

  ·  Mark Leisher has assembled a proportional, 17 pixel high (12
     point), font, called ClearlyU, covering Latin, Greek, Cyrillic,
     Armenian, Georgian, Hebrew, Thai, Laotian scripts.  Installation instructions:

       $ bdftopcf -o cu12.pcf cu12.bdf
       $ gzip -9 cu12.pcf
       # cp cu12.pcf.gz /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc
       # cd /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc
       # mkfontdir
       # xset fp rehash

  2.4.  Unicode xterm

  xterm is part of X11R6 and XFree86, but is maintained separately by
  Tom Dickey. Newer
  versions (patch level 146 and above) contain support for converting
  keystrokes to UTF-8 before sending them to the application running in
  the xterm, and for displaying Unicode characters that the application
  outputs as UTF-8 byte sequence. It also contains support for double-
  wide characters (mostly CJK ideographs) and combining characters,
  contributed by Robert Brady <>.

  To get an UTF-8 xterm running, you need to:

  ·  Fetch,

  ·  Configure it by calling "./configure --enable-wide-chars ...", then
     compile and install it.

  ·  Have a Unicode fixed-width font installed. Markus Kuhn's ucs-
     fonts.tar.gz (see above) is made for this.

  ·  Start "xterm -u8 -fn '-misc-fixed-medium-r-
     semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso10646-1'".  The option "-u8"
     turns on Unicode and UTF-8 handling. The font designated by the
     long "-fn" option is Markus Kuhn's Unicode font. Without this
     option, the default font called "fixed" would be used, an
     ISO-8859-1 6x13 font.

  ·  Take a look at the sample files contained in Markus Kuhn's ucs-
     fonts package:
       $ cd .../ucs-fonts
       $ cat quickbrown.txt
       $ cat utf-8-demo.txt

  You should be seeing (among others) greek and russian characters.

  ·  To make xterm come up with UTF-8 handling each time it is started,
     add the lines

       xterm*utf8:   1
       xterm*VT100*font:  -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso10646-1
       xterm*VT100*wideFont:  -misc-fixed-medium-r-normal-ja-13-125-75-75-c-120-iso10646-1
       xterm*VT100*boldFont:  -misc-fixed-bold-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso10646-1

  to your $HOME/.Xdefaults (for yourself only).  For CJK text processing
  with double-width characters, the following settings are probably bet­

       xterm*VT100*font:     -Misc-Fixed-Medium-R-Normal--18-120-100-100-C-90-ISO10646-1
       xterm*VT100*wideFont: -Misc-Fixed-Medium-R-Normal-ja-18-120-100-100-C-180-ISO10646-1

  I don't recommend changing the system-wide /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-
  defaults/XTerm, because then your changes will be erased next time you
  upgrade to a new XFree86 version.

  2.5.  TrueType fonts

  The fonts mentioned above are fixed size and not scalable. For some
  applications, especially printing, high resolution fonts are
  necessary, though. The most important type of scalable, high
  resolution fonts are TrueType fonts.  They are currently supported by

  ·  XFree86 4.0.1; you need to add the line

           Load "freetype"


           Load "xtt"

  to the "Module" section of your XF86Config file.

  ·  The display engines of other operating systems.

  ·  The yudit editor, see below, and its printing engine.

  Some no-cost TrueType fonts with large Unicode coverage are

     Bitstream Cyberbit
        Covers Roman, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, combining
        diacritical marks, Chinese, Korean, Japanese, and more.

        Downloadable from
        It is free for non-commercial purposes.

     Microsoft Arial
        Covers Roman, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, some combining
        diacritical marks, Vietnamese.

        Downloadable; look on a search engine for ftp-able files called
        arial.ttf, ariali.ttf, arialbd.ttf, arialbi.ttf.

     Lucida Sans Unicode
        Covers Roman, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, combining diacritical

        Download: contained in IBM's JDK 1.3.0 for Linux, at, or directly downloadable
        as LucidaSansRegular.ttf and LucidaSansOblique.ttf from

        Cover Chinese (both traditional and simplified).

        Download: at
        These fonts are truly free.

  Download locations for these and other TrueType fonts can be found at
  Christoph Singer's list of freely downloadable Unicode TrueType fonts

  Truetype fonts are installed similarly to fixed size fonts, except
  that they go in a separate directory, and that ttmkfdir must be called
  before mkfontdir:

       # mkdir -p /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/truetype
       # cp /somewhere/Cyberbit.ttf ... /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/truetype
       # cd /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/truetype
       # ttmkfdir > fonts.scale
       # mkfontdir
       # xset fp rehash

  TrueType fonts can be converted to low resolution, non-scalable X11
  fonts by use of Mark Leisher's ttf2bdf utility
  For example, to generate a proportional Unicode font for use with

  # cd /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/local
  # ttf2bdf ../truetrype/Cyberbit.ttf > cyberbit.bdf
  # bdftopcf -o cyberbit.pcf cyberbit.bdf
  # gzip -9 cyberbit.pcf
  # mkfontdir
  # xset fp rehash

  More information about TrueType fonts can be found in the Linux
  TrueType HOWTO

  2.6.  Miscellaneous

  A small program which tests whether a Linux console or xterm is in
  UTF-8 mode can be found in the
  package by Ricardas Cepas, files testUTF-8.c and testUTF8.c. Most
  applications should not use this, however: they should look at the
  environment variables, see section "Locale environment variables".

  3.  Locale setup

  3.1.  Files & the kernel

  You can now already use any Unicode characters in file names. No
  kernel or file utilities need modifications. This is because file
  names in the kernel can be anything not containing a null byte, and
  '/' is used to delimit subdirectories. When encoded using UTF-8, non-
  ASCII characters will never be encoded using null bytes or slashes.
  All that happens is that file and directory names occupy more bytes
  than they contain characters.  For example, a filename consisting of
  five greek characters will appear to the kernel as a 10-byte filename.
  The kernel does not know (and does not need to know) that these bytes
  are displayed as greek.

  This is the general theory, as long as your files stay inside Linux.
  On filesystems which are used from other operating systems, you have
  mount options to control conversion of filenames to/from UTF-8:

  ·  The "vfat" filesystems has a mount option "utf8".  See
     file:/usr/src/linux/Documentation/filesystems/vfat.txt.  When you
     give an "iocharset" mount option different from the default (which
     is "iso8859-1"), the results with and without "utf8" are not
     consistent. Therefore I don't recommend the "iocharset" mount

  ·  The "msdos", "umsdos" filesystems have the same mount option, but
     it appears to have no effect.

  ·  The "iso9660" filesystem has a mount option "utf8".  See

  ·  Since Linux 2.2.x kernels, the "ntfs" filesystem has a mount option
     "utf8". See file:/usr/src/linux/Documentation/filesystems/ntfs.txt.

     The other filesystems (nfs, smbfs, ncpfs, hpfs, etc.) don't convert
     filenames; therefore they support Unicode file names in UTF-8
     encoding only if the other operating system supports them.  Recall
     that to enable a mount option for all future remounts, you add it
     to the fourth column of the corresponding /etc/fstab line.

  3.2.  Upgrading the C library

  glibc-2.2 supports multibyte locales, in particular UTF-8 locales. But
  glibc-2.1.x and earlier C libraries do not support it. Therefore you
  need to upgrade to glibc-2.2. Upgrading from glibc-2.1.x is riskless,
  because glibc-2.2 is binary compatible with glibc-2.1.x (at least on
  i386 platforms, and except for IPv6). Nevertheless, I recommend to
  have a bootable rescue disk handy in case something goes wrong.

  Prepare the kernel sources. You must have them unpacked and
  configured.  /usr/src/linux/include/linux/autoconf.h must exist.
  Building the kernel is not needed.

  Retrieve the glibc sources, su to
  root, then unpack, build and install it:

       # unset LD_PRELOAD
       # unset LD_LIBRARY_PATH
       # tar xvfz glibc-2.2.tar.gz
       # tar xvfz glibc-linuxthreads-2.2.tar.gz -C glibc-2.2
       # mkdir glibc-2.2-build
       # cd glibc-2.2-build
       # ../glibc-2.2/configure --prefix=/usr --with-headers=/usr/src/linux/include --enable-add-ons
       # make
       # make check
       # make info
       # LC_ALL=C make install
       # make localedata/install-locales

  Upgrading from glibc versions earlier than 2.1.x cannot be done this
  way; consider first installing a Linux distribution based on
  glibc-2.1.x, and then upgrading to glibc-2.2 as described above.

  Note that if -- for any reason -- you want to rebuild GCC after having
  installed glibc-2.2, you need to first apply this patch gcc-
  glibc-2.2-compat.diff to the GCC sources.

  3.3.  General data conversion

  You will need a program to convert your locally (probably ISO-8859-1)
  encoded texts to UTF-8. (The alternative would be to keep using texts
  in different encodings on the same machine; this is not fun in the
  long run.)  One such program is `iconv', which comes with glibc-2.2.
  Simply use

       $ iconv --from-code=ISO-8859-1 --to-code=UTF-8 < old_file > new_file

  Here are two handy shell scripts, called "i2u" (for ISO to UTF
  conversion) and "u2i" (for UTF to ISO conversion).  Adapt
  according to your current 8-bit character set.

  If you don't have glibc-2.2 and iconv installed, you can use GNU
  recode 3.6 instead.  "i2u" is "recode
  ISO-8859-1..UTF-8", and "u2i" is "recode

  Or you can also use CLISP instead. Here are "i2u" i2u.lisp and "u2i"
  u2i.lisp written in Lisp. Note: You need a CLISP version from July
  1999 or newer.

  Other data conversion programs, less powerful than GNU recode, are
  `trans' ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-, `tcs' from the Plan9
  operating system ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-, and
  `utrans'/`uhtrans'/`hutrans' by G.
  Adam Stanislav <>.

  For the repeated conversion of files to UTF-8 from different character
  sets, a semi-automatic tool can be used: to-utf8 presents the non-
  ASCII parts of a file to the user, lets him decide about the file's
  original character set, and then converts the file to UTF-8.

  3.4.  Locale environment variables

  You may have the following environment variables set, containing
  locale names:

        override for LC_MESSAGES, used by GNU gettext only

        override for all other LC_* variables

        individual variables for: character types and encoding, natural
        language messages, sorting rules, number formatting, money
        amount formatting, date and time display

        default value for all LC_* variables

  (See `man 7 locale' for a detailed description.)

  Each of the LC_* and LANG variables can contain a locale name of the
  following form:


  where language is an ISO 639 language code (lower case), territory is
  an ISO 3166 country code (upper case), codeset denotes a character
  set, and modifier stands for other particular attributes (for example
  indicating a particular language dialect, or a nonstandard

  LANGUAGE can contain several locale names, separated by colons.

  In order to tell your system and all applications that you are using
  UTF-8, you need to add a codeset suffix of UTF-8 to your locale names.
  For example, if you were using


  you would change this to


  You do not need to change your LANGUAGE environment variable.  GNU
  gettext in glibc-2.2 has the ability to convert translations to the
  right encoding.

  3.5.  Creating the locale support files

  You create using localedef the support files for each UTF-8 locale you
  intend to use, for example:

       $ localedef -v -c -i de_DE -f UTF-8 de_DE.UTF-8

  You typically don't need to create locales named "de" or "fr" without
  country suffix, because these locales are normally only used by the
  LANGUAGE variable and not by the LC_* variables, and LANGUAGE is only
  used as an override for LC_MESSAGES.

  4.  Specific applications

  4.1.  Shells

  4.1.1.  bash

  By default, GNU bash assumes that every character is one byte long and
  one column wide. A patch for bash 2.04, by Marcin 'Qrczak' Kowalczyk
  and Ricardas Cepas, teaches bash about multibyte characters in UTF-8
  encoding.  bash-2.04-diff

  Double-width characters, combining characters and bidi are not
  supported by this patch. It seems a complete redesign of the readline
  redisplay engine is needed.

  4.2.  Networking

  4.2.1.  telnet

  In some installations, telnet is not 8-bit clean by default.  In order
  to be able to send Unicode keystrokes to the remote host, you need to
  set telnet into "outbinary" mode.  There are two ways to do this:

       $ telnet -L <host>


       $ telnet
       telnet> set outbinary
       telnet> open <host>

  4.2.2.  kermit

  The communications program C-Kermit, (an interactive tool for
  connection setup, telnet, file transfer, with support for TCP/IP and
  serial lines), in versions 7.0 or newer, understands the file and
  transfer encodings UTF-8 and UCS-2, and understands the terminal
  encoding UTF-8, and converts between these encodings and many others.
  Documentation of these features can be found in

  4.3.  Browsers

  4.3.1.  Netscape

  Netscape 4.05 or newer can display HTML documents in UTF-8 encoding.
  All a document needs is the following line between the <head> and
  </head> tags:

       <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">

  Netscape 4.05 or newer can also display HTML and text files in UCS-2
  encoding with byte-order mark.

  4.3.2.  Mozilla

  Mozilla milestone M16 has much better internationalization than
  Netscape 4.  It can display HTML documents in UTF-8 encoding with
  support for more languages. Alas, there is a cosmetic problem with CJK
  fonts: some glyphs can be bigger than the line's height, thus
  overlapping the previous or next line.

  4.3.3.  Amaya

  Amaya 4.2.1 (, has now limited handling of
  UTF-8 encoded HTML pages. It recognizes the encoding, but it displays
  only ISO-8859-1 and symbol characters; it only ever accesses the fonts

         -adobe-new century schoolbook-*-iso8859-1

  Amaya is in fact a HTML editor, not only a browser. Amaya's strengths
  among the browsers are its speed, given enough memory, and its
  rendering of mathematical formulas (MathML support).

  4.3.4.  lynx

  lynx-2.8 has an options screen (key 'O') which permits to set the
  display character set. When running in an xterm or Linux console in
  UTF-8 mode, set this to "UNICODE UTF-8". Note that for this setting to
  take effect in the current browser session, you have to confirm on the
  "Accept Changes" field, and for this setting to take effect in future
  browser sessions, you have to enable the "Save options to disk" field
  and then confirm it on the "Accept Changes" field.

  Now, again, all a document needs is the following line between the
  <head> and </head> tags:

       <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">

  When you are viewing text files in UTF-8 encoding, you also need to
  pass the command-line option "-assume_local_charset=UTF-8" (affects
  only file:/... URLs) or "-assume_charset=UTF-8" (affects all URLs).
  In lynx-2.8.2 you can alternatively, in the options screen (key 'O'),
  change the assumed document character set to "utf-8".

  There is also an option in the options screen, to set the "preferred
  document character set". But it has no effect, at least with file:/...
  URLs and with http://... URLs served by apache-1.3.0.

  There is a spacing and line-breaking problem, however. (Look at the
  russian section of x-utf8.html, or at utf-8-demo.txt.)

  Also, in lynx-2.8.2, configured with --enable-prettysrc, the nice
  colour scheme does not work correctly any more when the display
  character set has been set to "UNICODE UTF-8". This is fixed by a
  simple patch lynx282.diff.

  The Lynx developers say: "For any serious use of UTF-8 screen output
  with lynx, compiling with slang lib and -DSLANG_MBCS_HACK is still

  Latest stable release:

  General home page:

  Newer development shapshots:,

  4.3.5.  w3m

  w3m by Akinori Ito
  is a text mode browser for HTML pages and plain-text files.  Its
  layout of HTML tables, enumerations etc. is much prettier than lynx'
  one.  w3m can also be used as a high quality HTML to plain text

  w3m 0.1.10 has command line options for the three major Japanese
  encodings, but can also be used for UTF-8 encoded files. Without
  command line options, you often have to press Ctrl-L to refresh the
  display, and line breaking in Cyrillic and CJK paragraphs is not good.

  To fix this, by Hironori Sakamoto has a patch which adds UTF-8 as display

  4.3.6.  Test pages

  Some test pages for browsers can be found at the pages of Alan Wood and James Kass

  4.4.  Editors

  4.4.1.  yudit

  yudit by Gáspár Sinai is a first-class unicode
  text editor for the X Window System.  It supports simultaneous
  processing of many languages, input methods, conversions for local
  character standards.  It has facilities for entering text in all
  languages with only an English keyboard, using keyboard configuration
  maps.  yudit-1.5

  It can be compiled in three versions: Xlib GUI, KDE GUI, or Motif GUI.

  Customization is very easy. Typically you will first customize your
  font.  From the font menu I chose "Unicode". Then, since the command
  "xlsfonts '*-*-iso10646-1'" still showed some ambiguity, I chose a
  font size of 13 (to match Markus Kuhn's 13-pixel fixed font).

  Next, you will customize your input method. The input methods
  "Straight", "Unicode" and "SGML" are most remarkable. For details
  about the other built-in input methods, look in

  To change the default for the next session, edit your $HOME/.yuditrc

  The general editor functionality is limited to editing, cut&paste and
  search&replace. No undo.  yudit-2.1

  This version is less easy to learn, because it comes with a homebrewn
  GUI and no easily accessible help. But it has an undo functionality
  and should therefore be more usable than version 1.5.  Fonts for yudit

  yudit can display text using a TrueType font; see section "TrueType
  fonts" above. The Bitstream Cyberbit gives good results. For yudit to
  find the font, symlink it to /usr/local/share/yudit/data/cyberbit.ttf.

  4.4.2.  vim

  vim (as of version 6.0r) has good support for UTF-8: when started in
  an UTF-8 locale, it assumes UTF-8 encoding for the console and the
  text files being edited. It supports double-wide (CJK) characters as
  well and combining characters and therefore fits perfectly into UTF-8
  enabled xterm.

  Installation: Download from  After unpacking the
  four parts, call ./configure with --with-features=big --enable-
  multibyte arguments (or edit src/Makefile to include the --with-
  features=big and --enable-multibyte options). This will turn on the
  feature FEAT_MBYTE. Then do "make" and "make install".

  vim can be used to edit files in other encodings. For example, to edit
  a BIG5 encoded file: :e ++cc=BIG5 filename. All encoding names
  supported by iconv are accepted. Plus: vim automatically distinguishes
  UTF-8 and ISO-8859-1 files without needing any command line option.

  4.4.3.  cooledit

  cooledit by Paul Sheer is a good text editor
  for the X Window System. Since version 3.15, it has support for
  Unicode, including Bidi for Hebrew (but not Arabic).

  A build error message message about a missing "vga_setpage" function
  is worked around by adding "-DDO_NOT_USE_VGALIB" to the CFLAGS.

  To view UTF-8 files in an UTF-8 locale you have to modify a setting in
  the "Options -> Switches" panel: Enable the checkbox "Display
  characters outside locale". I also found it necessary to disable
  "Spellcheck as you type".

  For viewing texts with both European and CJK characters, cooledit
  needs a font which contains both, for example the GNU unifont (see
  section "X11 Unicode fonts"): Start once

       $ cooledit -fn -gnu-unifont-medium-r-normal--16-160-75-75-c-80-iso10646-1

  cooledit will then use this font in all future invocations.

  Unfortunately, the only characters that can be entered through the
  keyboard are ISO-8859-1 characters and, through a cooledit specific
  compose mechanism, ISO-8859-2 characters. Inputing arbitrary Unicode
  characters in cooledit is possible, but a bit tedious.

  4.4.4.  emacs

  First of all, you should read the section "International Character Set
  Support" (node "International") in the Emacs manual. In particular,
  note that you need to start Emacs using the command

       $ emacs -fn fontset-standard

  so that it will use a font set comprising a lot of international char­

  In the short term, there are two packages for using UTF-8 in Emacs.
  None of them needs recompiling Emacs.

  ·  The emacs-utf package by
     Otfried Cheong provides a "unicode-utf8" encoding to Emacs.

  ·  The oc-unicode package,
     by Otfried Cheong, an extension of the Mule-UCS package
     (mirrored at
     UCS/Mule-UCS-0.70.tar.gz and
     UCS/Mule-UCS-0.70.tar.gz) by Hisashi Miyashita, provides a "utf-8"
     encoding to Emacs.

  You can use either of these packages, or both together. The advantages
  of the emacs-utf "unicode-utf8" encoding are: it loads faster, and it
  deals better with combining characters (important for Thai).  The
  advantage of the Mule-UCS / oc-unicode "utf-8" encoding is: it can
  apply to a process buffer (such as M-x shell), not only to loading and
  saving of files; and it respects the widths of characters better
  (important for Ethiopian). However, it is less reliable: After heavy
  editing of a file, I have seen some Unicode characters replaced with
  U+FFFD after the file was saved. (But maybe that were bugs in Emacs
  20.5 and 20.6 which are fixed in Emacs 20.7.)
  To install the emacs-utf package, compile the program "utf2mule" and
  install it somewhere in your $PATH, also install unicode.el,
  muleuni-1.el, unicode-char.el somewhere. Then add the lines

       (setq load-path (cons "/home/user/somewhere/emacs" load-path))
       (if (not (string-match "XEmacs" emacs-version))
           (require 'unicode)
           ;(setq unicode-data-path "..../UnicodeData-3.0.0.txt")
           (if (eq window-system 'x)
               (setq fontset12
               (setq fontset13
               (setq fontset14
               (setq fontset15
               (setq fontset16
               (setq fontset18
              ; (set-default-font fontset15)

  to your $HOME/.emacs file. To activate any of the font sets, use the
  Mule menu item "Set Font/FontSet" or Shift-down-mouse-1. The Unicode
  coverage may of the font sets at different sizes may depend on the
  installed fonts; here are screen shots at various sizes of
  UTF-8-demo.txt ( 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18) and of the Mule script exam­
  ples ( 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18).  To designate a font set as the ini­
  tial font set for the first frame at startup, uncomment the set-
  default-font line in the code snippet above.

  To install the oc-unicode package, execute the command

       $ emacs -batch -l oc-comp.el

  and install the resulting file un-define.elc, as well as oc-uni­
  code.el, oc-charsets.el, oc-tools.el, somewhere. Then add the lines

  (setq load-path (cons "/home/user/somewhere/emacs" load-path))
  (if (not (string-match "XEmacs" emacs-version))
      (require 'oc-unicode)
      ;(setq unicode-data-path "..../UnicodeData-3.0.0.txt")
      (if (eq window-system 'x)
          (setq fontset12
          (setq fontset13
          (setq fontset14
          (setq fontset15
          (setq fontset16
          (setq fontset18
         ; (set-default-font fontset15)

  to your $HOME/.emacs file. You can choose your appropriate font set as
  with the emacs-utf package.

  In order to open an UTF-8 encoded file, you will type

       M-x universal-coding-system-argument unicode-utf8 RET
       M-x find-file filename RET


       C-x RET c unicode-utf8 RET
       C-x C-f filename RET

  (or utf-8 instead of unicode-utf8, if you prefer oc-unicode/Mule-UCS).

  In order to start a shell buffer with UTF-8 I/O, you will type

       M-x universal-coding-system-argument utf-8 RET
       M-x shell RET

  (This works with oc-unicode/Mule-UCS only.)

  There is a newer version Mule-UCS-0.81. Unfortunately you need to
  rebuild emacs from source in order to use it.

  Note that all this works with Emacs 20 in windowing mode only, not in
  terminal mode. None of the mentioned packages works in Emacs 21, as of
  this writing.

  Richard Stallman plans to add integrated UTF-8 support to Emacs in the
  long term, and so does the XEmacs developers group.

  4.4.5.  xemacs

  (This section is written by Gilbert Baumann.)

  Here is how to teach XEmacs (20.4 configured with MULE) the UTF-8
  encoding.  Unfortunately you need its sources to be able to patch it.

  First you need these files provided by Tomohiko Morioka:
  b55-ucs.diff and

  The .diff is a diff against the C sources. The tar ball is elisp code,
  which provides lots of code tables to map to and from Unicode. As the
  name of the diff file suggests it is against XEmacs-21; I needed to
  help `patch' a bit. The most notable difference to my XEmacs-20.4
  sources is that file-coding.[ch] was called mule-coding.[ch].

  For those unfamilar with the XEmacs-MULE stuff (as I am) a quick

  What we call an encoding is called by MULE a `coding-system'. The most
  important commands are:

       M-x set-file-coding-system
       M-x set-buffer-process-coding-system   [comint buffers]

  and the variable `file-coding-system-alist', which guides `find-file'
  to guess the encoding used. After stuff was running, the very first
  thing I did was this.

  This code looks into the special mode line introduced by -*- somewhere
  in the first 600 bytes of the file about to opened; if now there is a
  field "Encoding: xyz;" and the xyz encoding ("coding system" in Emacs
  speak) exists, choose that. So now you could do e.g.

       ;;; -*- Mode: Lisp; Syntax: Common-Lisp; Package: CLEX; Encoding: utf-8; -*-

  and XEmacs goes into utf-8 mode here.

  Atfer everything was running I defined \u03BB (greek lambda) as a
  macro like:

       (defmacro \u03BB (x) `(lambda .,x))

  4.4.6.  nedit

  4.4.7.  xedit

  With XFree86-4.0.1, xedit is able to edit UTF-8 files if you set the
  locale accordingly (see above), and add the line "Xedit*international:
  true" to your $HOME/.Xdefaults file.

  4.4.8.  axe

  As of version 6.1.2, aXe supports only 8-bit locales. If you add the
  line "Axe*international: true" to your $HOME/.Xdefaults file, it will
  simply dump core.

  4.4.9.  pico

  As of version 4.30, pine cannot be reasonably used to view or edit
  UTF-8 files. In UTF-8 enabled xterm, it has severe redraw problems.

  4.4.10.  mined98

  mined98 is a small text editor by Michiel Huisjes, Achim Müller and
  Thomas Wolff. It
  lets you edit UTF-8 or 8-bit encoded files, in an UTF-8 or 8-bit
  xterm.  It also has powerful capabilities for entering Unicode

  mined lets you edit both 8-bit encoded and UTF-8 encoded files. By
  default it uses an autodetection heuristic. If you don't want to rely
  on heuristics, pass the command-line option -u when editing an UTF-8
  file, or +u when editing an 8-bit encoded file. You can change the
  interpretation at any time from within the editor: It displays the
  encoding ("L:h" for 8-bit, "U:h" for UTF-8) in the menu line. Click on
  the first of these characters to change it.

  mined knows about double-width and combining characters and displays
  them correctly. It also has a special display mode for combining

  mined also has a scrollbar and very nice pull-down menus. Alas, the
  "Home", "End", "Delete" keys do not work.

  4.4.11.  qemacs

  qemacs 0.2 is a small text editor by Fabrice Bellard.  http://www- with Emacs keybindings. It runs in an
  UTF-8 console or xterm, and can edit both 8-bit encoded and UTF-8
  encoded files. It still has a few rough edges, but further development
  is underway.

  4.5.  Mailers

  MIME: RFC 2279 defines UTF-8 as a MIME charset, which can be
  transported under the 8bit, quoted-printable and base64 encodings. The
  older MIME UTF-7 proposal (RFC 2152) is considered to be deprecated
  and should not be used any further.

  Mail clients released after January 1, 1999, should be capable of
  sending and displaying UTF-8 encoded mails, otherwise they are
  considered deficient.  But these mails have to carry the MIME labels

       Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8
       Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

  Simply piping an UTF-8 file into "mail" without caring about the MIME
  labels will not work.

  Mail client implementors should take a look at
  intl/ and

  Now about the individual mail clients (or "mail user agents"):

  4.5.1.  pine

  The situation for an unpatched pine version 4.30 is as follows.

  Pine does not do character set conversions. But it allows you to view
  UTF-8 mails in an UTF-8 text window (Linux console or xterm).

  Normally, Pine will warn about different character sets each time you
  view an UTF-8 encoded mail. To get rid of this warning, choose S
  (setup), then C (config), then change the value of "character-set" to
  UTF-8. This option will not do anything, except to reduce the
  warnings, as Pine has no built-in knowledge of UTF-8.

  Also note that Pine's notion of Unicode characters is pretty limited:
  It will display Latin and Greek characters, but not other kinds of
  Unicode characters.

  A patch by Robert Brady <> adds UTF-8
  support to Pine. With this patch, it decodes and prints headers and
  bodies properly. The patch depends on the GNOME libunicode

  However, alignment remains broken in many places; replying to a mail
  does not cause the character set to be converted as appropriate; and
  the editor, pico, cannot deal with multibyte characters.

  4.5.2.  kmail

  kmail (as of KDE 1.0) does not support UTF-8 mails at all.

  4.5.3.  Netscape Communicator

  Netscape Communicator's Messenger can send and display mails in UTF-8
  encoding, but it needs a little bit of manual user intervention.

  To send an UTF-8 encoded mail: After opening the "Compose" window, but
  before starting to compose the message, select from the menu "View ->
  Character Set -> Unicode (UTF-8)". Then compose the message and send

  When you receive an UTF-8 encoded mail, Netscape unfortunately does
  not display it in UTF-8 right away, and does not even give a visual
  clue that the mail was encoded in UTF-8. You have to manually select
  from the menu "View -> Character Set -> Unicode (UTF-8)".

  For displaying UTF-8 mails, Netscape uses different fonts. You can
  adjust your font settings in the "Edit -> Preferences -> Fonts"
  dialog; choose the "Unicode" font category.

  4.5.4.  emacs (rmail, vm)

  4.5.5.  mutt

  mutt-1.2.x, as available from, has only
  rudimentary support for UTF-8: it can convert from UTF-8 into an 8-bit
  display charset. The mutt-1.3.x development branch also supports UTF-8
  as the display charset, so you can run Mutt in an UTF-8 xterm, and has
  thorough support for MIME and charset conversion (relying on iconv).

  4.5.6.  exmh

  exmh 2.1.2 with Tk 8.4a1 can recognize and correctly display UTF-8
  mails (without CJK characters) if you add the following lines to your
  $HOME/.Xdefaults file.

       ! Exmh
       exmh.mimeUCharsets:                     utf-8
       exmh.mime_utf-8_registry:               iso10646
       exmh.mime_utf-8_encoding:               1
       exmh.mime_utf-8_plain_families:         fixed
       exmh.mime_utf-8_fixed_families:         fixed
       exmh.mime_utf-8_proportional_families:  fixed
       exmh.mime_utf-8_title_families:         fixed

  4.6.  Text processing

  4.6.1.  groff

  groff 1.16.1, the GNU implementation of the traditional Unix text
  processing system troff/nroff, can output UTF-8 formatted text. Simply
  use `groff -Tutf8' instead of `groff -Tlatin1' or `groff -Tascii'.

  4.6.2.  TeX

  The teTeX 0.9 (and newer) distribution contains an Unicode adaptation
  of TeX, called Omega (,  Together with the unicode.tex
  file contained in utf8-tex-0.1.tar.gz it enables you to use UTF-8
  encoded sources as input for TeX. A thousand of Unicode characters are
  currently supported.

  All that changes is that you run `omega' (instead of `tex') or
  `lambda' (instead of `latex'), and insert the following lines at the
  head of your source input.

       \InputTranslation currentfile \TexUTF

       \input unicode

  Other maybe related links:

  4.7.  Databases

  4.7.1.  PostgreSQL

  PostgreSQL 6.4 or newer can be built with the configuration option

  4.7.2.  Interbase

  Borland/Inprise's Interbase 6.0 can store string fields in UTF-8
  format if the option "CHARACTER SET UNICODE_FSS" is given.

  4.8.  Other text-mode applications

  4.8.1.  less

  With you can browse
  UTF-8 encoded text files in an UTF-8 xterm or console.  Make sure that
  the environment variable LESSCHARSET is not set (or is set to utf-8).
  If you also have a LESSKEY environment variable set, also make sure
  that the file it points to does not define LESSCHARSET. If necessary,
  regenerate this file using the `lesskey' command, or unset the LESSKEY
  environment variable.

  4.8.2.  lv

  lv-4.49.3 by Tomio Narita is a file
  viewer with builtin character set converters. To view UTF-8 files in
  an UTF-8 console, use "lv -Au8". But it can also be used to view files
  in other CJK encodings in an UTF-8 console.

  There is a small glitch: lv turns off xterm's cursor and doesn't turn
  it on again.

  4.8.3.  expand

  Get the GNU textutils-2.0 and apply the patch textutils-2.0.diff, then
  configure, add "#define HAVE_FGETWC 1", "#define HAVE_FPUTWC 1" to
  config.h. Then rebuild.

  4.8.4.  col, colcrt, colrm, column, rev, ul

  Get the util-linux-2.9y package, configure it, then define
  ENABLE_WIDECHAR in defines.h, change the "#if 0" to "#if 1" in
  lib/widechar.h. In text-utils/Makefile, modify CFLAGS and LDFLAGS so
  that they include the directories where libutf8 is installed. Then

  4.8.5.  figlet

  figlet 2.2 has an option for UTF-8 input: "figlet -C utf8"

  4.8.6.  Base utilities

  The Li18nux list of commands and utilities that ought to be made
  interoperable with UTF-8 is as follows. Useful information needs to
  get added here; I just didn't get around it yet :-)

  As of glibc-2.2, regular expressions only work for 8-bit characters.
  In an UTF-8 locale, regular expressions that contain non-ASCII
  characters or that expect to match a single multibyte character with
  "." do not work.  This affects all commands and utilities listed

        No info available yet.

     ar No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

     at As of at-3.1.8: The two uses of isalnum in at.c are invalid and
        should be replaced with a use of quotearg.c or an exclude list
        of the (fixed) list of shell metacharacters. The two uses of %8s
        in at.c and atd.c are invalid and should become arbitrary

        No info available yet.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

        No info available yet.

     bc No info available yet.

     bg No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

     cd No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        As of fileutils-4.0u: OK.

        As of fileutils-4.0u: OK.

        As of fileutils-4.0u: OK.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

        As of textutils-2.0e: OK.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

     cp As of fileutils-4.0u: OK.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

     dd As of fileutils-4.0u: The conv=lcase, conv=ucase options don't
        work correctly.

     df As of fileutils-4.0u: OK.

        As of diffutils-2.7.2: the --side-by-side mode therefore doesn't
        compute column width correctly.

        No info available yet.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

        No info available yet.

     du As of fileutils-4.0u: OK.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

     ed No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

     ex No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: The operators "match", "substr", "index",
        "length" don't work correctly.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

     fc No info available yet.

     fg No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        As of findutils-4.1.6: The "-iregex" does not work correctly;
        this needs a fix in function find/parser.c:insert_regex.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        gzip-1.3 is UTF-8 capable, but it uses only English messages in
        ASCII charset. Proper internationalization would require: Use
        gettext. Call setlocale. In function check_ofname (file gzip.c),
        use the function rpmatch from GNU text/sh/fileutils instead of
        asking for "y" or "n". The use of strlen in gzip.c:852 is wrong,
        needs to use the function mbswidth.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.
        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

        No info available yet.

     id As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No complete info available yet.

        No info available yet.

     ln As of fileutils-4.0u: OK.

        As of glibc-2.2: OK.

        As of glibc-2.2: OK.

        No info available yet.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

     lp No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

     ls As of fileutils-4.0y: OK.

     m4 No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        As of fileutils-4.0u: OK.

        As of fileutils-4.0u: OK.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

     mv As of fileutils-4.0u: OK.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

     nl No info available yet.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

        No info available yet.

     nm No info available yet.

     od No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

        No info available yet.

     pr No info available yet.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

     ps No info available yet.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

     rm As of fileutils-4.0u: OK.

        As of fileutils-4.0u: OK.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.
        As of sh-utils-2.0.11: OK.

        No info available yet.

        As of textutils-2.0e: OK.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        As of tar-1.13.17: OK, if user and group names are always ASCII.

        No info available yet.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

        No info available yet.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

        No info available yet.

        As of fileutils-4.0u: OK.

        No info available yet.

     tr No info available yet.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

        No info available yet.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

     vi No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

     wc As of textutils-2.0.8: OK.

        As of sh-utils-2.0i: OK.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        As of findutils-4.1.5: The program uses strstr; a patch has been
        submitted to the maintainer.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

        No info available yet.

  4.9.  Other X11 applications

  Owen Taylor is currently developing a library for rendering
  multilingual text, called pango.,

  5.  Printing

  Since Postscript itself does not support Unicode fonts, the burden of
  Unicode support in printing is on the program creating the Postscript
  document, not on the Postscript renderer.

  The existing Postscript fonts I've seen - .pfa/.pfb/.afm/.pfm/.gsf -
  support only a small range of glyphs and are not Unicode fonts.
  5.1.  Printing using TrueType fonts

  Both the uniprint and wprint programs produce good printed output for
  Unicode plain text. They require a TrueType font; see section
  "TrueType fonts" above. The Bitstream Cyberbit gives good results.

  5.1.1.  uniprint

  The "uniprint" program contained in the yudit package can convert a
  text file to Postscript. For uniprint to find the Cyberbit font,
  symlink it to /usr/local/share/yudit/data/cyberbit.ttf.

  5.1.2.  wprint

  The "wprint" (WorldPrint) program by Eduardo Trapani postprocesses
  Postscript output produced by Netscape Communicator or Mozilla from
  HTML pages or plain text files.

  The output is nearly perfect; only in Cyrillic paragraphs the line
  breaking is incorrect: the lines are only about half as wide as they
  should be.

  5.1.3.  Comparison

  For plain text, uniprint has a better overall layout. On the other
  hand, only wprint gets Thai output correct.

  5.2.  Printing using fixed-size fonts

  Generally, printing using fixed-size fonts does not give an as
  professional output as using TrueType fonts.

  5.2.1.  txtbdf2ps

  The txtbdf2ps 0.7 program by Serge Winitzki converts a
  plain text file to Postscript, by use of a BDF font.  Installation:

       # install -m 777 txtbdf2ps-dev.txt /usr/local/bin/txtbdf2ps

  Example with a proportional font:

       $ txtbdf2ps -BDF=cyberbit.bdf -UTF-8 -nowrap < input.txt >

  Example with a fixed-width font:

  $ txtbdf2ps -BDF=unifont.bdf -UTF-8 -nowrap < input.txt >

  Note: txtbdf2ps does not support combining characters and bidi.

  5.3.  The classical approach

  Another way to print with TrueType fonts is to convert the TrueType
  font to a Postscript font using the ttf2pt1 utility
  (,, Details can be found in Julius
  Chroboczek's "Printing with TrueType fonts in Unix" writeup,

  5.3.1.  TeX, Omega

  TODO: CJK, metafont, omega, dvips, odvips, utf8-tex-0.1

  5.3.2.  DocBook

  TODO: db2ps, jadetex

  5.3.3.  groff -Tps

  "groff -Tps" produces Postscript output. Its Postscript output driver
  supports only a very limited number of Unicode characters (only what
  Postscript supports by itself).

  5.4.  No luck with...

  5.4.1.  Netscape's "Print..."

  As of version 4.72, Netscape Communicator cannot correctly print HTML
  pages in UTF-8 encoding. You really have to use wprint.

  5.4.2.  Mozilla's "Print..."

  As of version M16, printing of HTML pages is apparently not

  5.4.3.  html2ps

  As of version 1.0b1, the html2ps HTML to Postscript converter does not
  support UTF-8 encoded HTML pages and has no special treatment of
  fonts: the generated Postscript uses the standard Postscript fonts.

  5.4.4.  a2ps

  As of version 4.12, a2ps doesn't support printing UTF-8 encoded text.

  5.4.5.  enscript

  As of version 1.6.1, enscript doesn't support printing UTF-8 encoded
  text.  By default, it uses only the standard Postscript fonts, but it
  can also include a custom Postscript font in the output.

  6.  Making your programs Unicode aware

  6.1.  C/C++

  The C `char' type is 8-bit and will stay 8-bit because it denotes the
  smallest addressable data unit. Various facilities are available:

  6.1.1.  For normal text handling

  The ISO/ANSI C standard contains, in an amendment which was added in
  1995, a "wide character" type `wchar_t', a set of functions like those
  found in <string.h> and <ctype.h> (declared in <wchar.h> and
  <wctype.h>, respectively), and a set of conversion functions between
  `char *' and `wchar_t *' (declared in <stdlib.h>).

  Good references for this API are

  ·  the GNU libc-2.1 manual, chapters 4 "Character Handling" and 6
     "Character Set Handling",

  ·  the manual pages man-mbswcs.tar.gz, now contained in

  ·  the OpenGroup's introduction http://www.unix-,

  ·  the OpenGroup's Single Unix specification http://www.UNIX-,

  ·  the ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (ISO C 99) standard. The latest draft before
     it was adopted is called n2794. You find it at or http://java-

  ·  Clive Feather's introduction,

  ·  the Dinkumware C library reference

  Advantages of using this API:

  ·  It's a vendor independent standard.

  ·  The functions do the right thing, depending on the user's locale.
     All a program needs to call is setlocale(LC_ALL,"");.
  Drawbacks of this API:

  ·  Some of the functions are not multithread-safe, because they keep a
     hidden internal state between function calls.

  ·  There is no first-class locale datatype. Therefore this API cannot
     reasonably be used for anything that needs more than one locale or
     character set at the same time.

  ·  The OS support for this API is not good on most OSes.  Portability notes

  A `wchar_t' may or may not be encoded in Unicode; this is platform and
  sometimes also locale dependent. A multibyte sequence `char *' may or
  may not be encoded in UTF-8; this is platform and sometimes also
  locale dependent.

  In detail, here is what the Single Unix specification says about the
  `wchar_t' type: All wide-character codes in a given process consist of
  an equal number of bits. This is in contrast to characters, which can
  consist of a variable number of bytes. The byte or byte sequence that
  represents a character can also be represented as a wide-character
  code.  Wide-character codes thus provide a uniform size for
  manipulating text data. A wide-character code having all bits zero is
  the null wide-character code, and terminates wide-character strings.
  The wide-character value for each member of the Portable Character Set
  (i.e. ASCII) will equal its value when used as the lone character in
  an integer character constant. Wide-character codes for other
  characters are locale- and implementation-dependent. State shift bytes
  do not have a wide-character code representation.

  One particular consequence is that in portable programs you shouldn't
  use non-ASCII characters in string literals. That means, even though
  you know the Unicode double quotation marks have the codes U+201C and
  U+201D, you shouldn't write a string literal L"\u201cHello\u201d, he
  said" or "\xe2\x80\x9cHello\xe2\x80\x9d, he said" in C programs.
  Instead, use GNU gettext, write it as gettext("'Hello', he said"), and
  create a message database en.po which translates "'Hello', he said" to
  "\u201cHello\u201d, he said".

  Here is a survey of the portability of the ISO/ANSI C facilities on
  various Unix flavours.

     GNU glibc-2.2.x

     ·  <wchar.h> and <wctype.h> exist.

     ·  Has wcs/mbs functions, fgetwc/fputwc/wprintf, everything.

     ·  Has five UTF-8 locales.

     ·  mbrtowc works.

     GNU glibc-2.0.x, glibc-2.1.x

     ·  <wchar.h> and <wctype.h> exist.

     ·  Has wcs/mbs functions, but no fgetwc/fputwc/wprintf.

     ·  No UTF-8 locale.

     ·  mbrtowc returns EILSEQ for bytes >= 0x80.

     AIX 4.3

     ·  <wchar.h> and <wctype.h> exist.

     ·  Has wcs/mbs functions, fgetwc/fputwc/wprintf, everything.

     ·  Has many UTF-8 locales, one for every country.

     ·  Needs -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500 in order to define mbstate_t.

     ·  mbrtowc works.

     Solaris 2.7

     ·  <wchar.h> and <wctype.h> exist.

     ·  Has wcs/mbs functions, fgetwc/fputwc/wprintf, everything.

     ·  Has the following UTF-8 locales: en_US.UTF-8, de.UTF-8,
        es.UTF-8, fr.UTF-8, it.UTF-8, sv.UTF-8.

     ·  mbrtowc returns -1/EILSEQ (instead of -2) for bytes >= 0x80.

     OSF/1 4.0d

     ·  <wchar.h> and <wctype.h> exist.

     ·  Has wcs/mbs functions, fgetwc/fputwc/wprintf, everything.

     ·  Has an add-on universal.utf8@ucs4 locale, see "man 5 unicode".

     ·  mbrtowc does not know about UTF-8.

     Irix 6.5

     ·  <wchar.h> and <wctype.h> exist.

     ·  Has wcs/mbs functions and fgetwc/fputwc, but not wprintf.

     ·  Has no multibyte locales.

     ·  Has only a dummy definition for mbstate_t.

     ·  Doesn't have mbrtowc.

     HP-UX 11.00

     ·  <wchar.h> exists, <wctype.h> does not.

     ·  Has wcs/mbs functions and fgetwc/fputwc, but not wprintf.

     ·  Has a C.utf8 locale.

     ·  Doesn't have mbstate_t.

     ·  Doesn't have mbrtowc.

  As a consequence, I recommend to use the restartable and multithread-
  safe wcsr/mbsr functions, forget about those systems which don't have
  them (Irix, HP-UX, AIX), and use the UTF-8 locale plug-in (see below) on those systems which permit you to
  compile programs which use these wcsr/mbsr functions (Linux, Solaris,

  A similar advice, given by Sun in
  papers/wp-unicode/, section "Internationalized Applications with
  Unicode", is:

  To properly internationalize an application, use the following

  1. Avoid direct access with Unicode. This is a task of the platform's
     internationalization framework.

  2. Use the POSIX model for multibyte and wide-character interfaces.

  3. Only call the APIs that the internationalization framework provides
     for language and cultural-specific operations.

  4. Remain code-set independent.

  If, for some reason, in some piece of code, you really have to assume
  that `wchar_t' is Unicode (for example, if you want to do special
  treatment of some Unicode characters), you should make that piece of
  code conditional upon the result of is_locale_utf8(). Otherwise you
  will mess up your program's behaviour in different locales or other
  platforms. The function is_locale_utf8 is declared in utf8locale.h and
  defined in utf8locale.c.  The libutf8 library

  A portable implementation of the ISO/ANSI C API, which supports 8-bit
  locales and UTF-8 locales, can be found in libutf8-0.7.3.tar.gz.


  ·  Unicode UTF-8 support now, portably, even on OSes whose multibyte
     character support does not work or which don't have multibyte/wide
     character support at all.

  ·  The same binary works in all OS supported 8-bit locales and in
     UTF-8 locales.

  ·  When an OS vendor adds proper multibyte character support, you can
     take advantage of it by simply recompiling without -DHAVE_LIBUTF8
     compiler option.  The Plan9 way

  The Plan9 operating system, a variant of Unix, uses UTF-8 as character
  encoding in all applications. Its wide character type is called
  `Rune', not `wchar_t'. Parts of its libraries, written by Rob Pike and
  Howard Trickey, are available at
  Another similar library, written by Alistair G. Crooks, is
  In particular, each of these libraries contains an UTF-8 aware regular
  expression matcher.

  Drawback of this API:

  ·  UTF-8 is compiled in, not optional. Programs compiled in this
     universe lose support for the 8-bit encodings which are still
     frequently used in Europe.

  6.1.2.  For graphical user interface

  The Qt-2.0 library contains a fully-Unicode
  QString class. You can use the member functions QString::utf8 and
  QString::fromUtf8 to convert to/from UTF-8 encoded text.  The
  QString::ascii and QString::latin1 member functions should not be used
  any more.

  6.1.3.  For advanced text handling

  The previously mentioned libraries implement Unicode aware versions of
  the ASCII concepts. Here are libraries which deal with Unicode
  concepts, such as titlecase (a third letter case, different from
  uppercase and lowercase), distinction between punctuation and symbols,
  canonical decomposition, combining classes, canonical ordering and the

        The ucdata library by Mark Leisher deals with character
        properties, case conversion, decomposition, combining classes.
        The companion package ure-0.5 is a Unicode
        regular expression matcher.

        The ustring C++ library by Rodrigo Reyes deals with character properties,
        case conversion, decomposition, combining classes, and includes
        a Unicode regular expression matcher.

        International Components for Unicode  IBM's very comprehensive
        internationalization library featuring Unicode strings, resource
        bundles, number formatters, date/time formatters, message
        formatters, collation and more. Lots of supported locales.
        Portable to Unix and Win32, but compiles out of the box only on
        Linux libc6, not libc5.

        The GNOME libunicode library by Tom Tromey and
        others. It covers character set conversion, character
        properties, decomposition.

  6.1.4.  For conversion

  Two kinds of conversion libraries, which support UTF-8 and a large
  number of 8-bit character sets, are available:  iconv

  The iconv implementation by Ulrich Drepper, contained in the GNU
  glibc-2.2.  The
  iconv manpages are now contained in

  The portable iconv implementation by Bruno Haible.

  The portable iconv implementation by Konstantin Chuguev.


  ·  iconv is POSIX standardized, programs using iconv to convert
     from/to UTF-8 will also run under Solaris. However, the names for
     the character sets differ between platforms. For example, "EUC-JP"
     under glibc is "eucJP" under HP-UX.  (The official IANA name for
     this character set is "EUC-JP", so it's clearly a HP-UX

  ·  On glibc-2.1 systems, no additional library is needed. On other
     systems, one of the two other iconv implementations can be used.  librecode

  librecode by François Pinard


  ·  Support for transliteration, i.e. conversion of non-ASCII
     characters to sequences of ASCII characters in order to preserve
     readability by humans, even when a lossless transformation is


  ·  Non-standard API.

  ·  Slow initialization.  ICU

  International Components for Unicode 1.7  IBM's internationalization library
  also has conversion facilities, declared in `ucnv.h'.


  ·  Comprehensive set of supported encodings.


  ·  Non-standard API.

  6.1.5.  Other approaches

        libutf-8 by G. Adam Stanislav <> contains a
        few functions for on-the-fly conversion from/to UTF-8 encoded
        `FILE*' streams.


     ·  Very small.


     ·  Non-standard API.

     ·  UTF-8 is compiled in, not optional. Programs compiled with this
        library lose support for the 8-bit encodings which are still
        frequently used in Europe.

     ·  Installation is nontrivial: Makefile needs tweaking, not

  6.2.  Java

  Java has Unicode support built into the language. The type `char'
  denotes a Unicode character, and the `java.lang.String' class denotes
  a string built up from Unicode characters.

  Java can display any Unicode characters through its windowing system
  AWT, provided that 1. you set the Java system property "user.language"
  appropriately, 2. the /usr/lib/java/lib/ font
  set definitions are appropriate, and 3. the fonts specified in that
  file are installed.  For example, in order to display text containing
  japanese characters, you would install japanese fonts and run "java
  -Duser.language=ja ...".  You can combine font sets: In order to
  display western european, greek and japanese characters
  simultaneously, you would create a combination of the files
  "" (covers ISO-8859-1), "" (covers
  ISO-8859-7) and "" into a single file.  ??This is

  The interfaces and have methods
  called `readUTF' and `writeUTF' respectively. But note that they don't
  use UTF-8; they use a modified UTF-8 encoding: the NUL character is
  encoded as the two-byte sequence 0xC0 0x80 instead of 0x00, and a 0x00
  byte is added at the end. Encoded this way, strings can contain NUL
  characters and nevertheless need not be prefixed with a length field -
  the C <string.h> functions like strlen() and strcpy() can be used to
  manipulate them.

  6.3.  Lisp

  The Common Lisp standard specifies two character types: `base-char'
  and `character'. It's up to the implementation to support Unicode or
  not.  The language also specifies a keyword argument `:external-
  format' to `open', as the natural place to specify a character set or

  Among the free Common Lisp implementations, only CLISP supports Unicode. You need a CLISP version from
  March 2000 or newer.  The types
  `base-char' and `character' are both equivalent to 16-bit Unicode.
  The functions char-width and string-width provide an API comparable to
  wcwidth() and wcswidth().  The encoding used for file or socket/pipe
  I/O can be specified through the `:external-format' argument. The
  encodings used for tty I/O and the default encoding for
  file/socket/pipe I/O are locale dependent.

  Among the commercial Common Lisp implementations:

  LispWorks supports
  Unicode.  The type `base-char' is equivalent to ISO-8859-1, and the
  type `simple-char' (subtype of `character') contains all Unicode
  characters.  The encoding used for file I/O can be specified through
  the `:external-format' argument, for example '(:UTF-8).  Limitations:
  Encodings cannot be used for socket I/O. The editor cannot edit UTF-8
  encoded files.

  Eclipse supports Unicode.
  See  The type `base-char' is
  equivalent to ISO-8859-1, and the type `character' contains all
  Unicode characters.  The encoding used for file I/O can be specified
  through a combination of the `:element-type' and `:external-format'
  arguments to `open'.  Limitations: Character attribute functions are
  locale dependent. Source and compiled source files cannot contain
  Unicode string literals.

  The commercial Common Lisp implementation Allegro CL, in version 6.0,
  has Unicode support. The types `base-char' and `character' are both
  equivalent to 16-bit Unicode. The encoding used for file I/O can be
  specified through the `:external-format' argument, for example
  :external-format :utf8.  The default encoding is locale dependent.
  More details are at

  6.4.  Ada95

  Ada95 was designed for Unicode support and the Ada95 standard library
  features special ISO 10646-1 data types Wide_Character and
  Wide_String, as well as numerous associated procedures and functions.
  The GNU Ada95 compiler (gnat-3.11 or newer) supports UTF-8 as the
  external encoding of wide characters. This allows you to use UTF-8 in
  both source code and application I/O. To activate it in the
  application, use "WCEM=8" in the FORM string when opening a file, and
  use compiler option "-gnatW8" if the source code is in UTF-8. See the
  GNAT ( and Ada95
  reference manuals for details.

  6.5.  Python

  Python 2.0 (,
  python.html) contains Unicode support. It has a new fundamental data
  type `unicode', representing a Unicode string, a module `unicodedata'
  for the character properties, and a set of converters for the most
  important encodings.  See, or the
  file Misc/unicode.txt in the distribution, for details.

  6.6.  JavaScript/ECMAscript

  Since JavaScript version 1.3, strings are always Unicode. There is no
  character type, but you can use the \uXXXX notation for Unicode
  characters inside strings. No normalization is done internally, so it
  expects to receive Unicode Normalization Form C, which the W3C
  recommends. See
  for details and for the
  complete ECMAscript specification.

  6.7.  Tcl

  Tcl/Tk started using Unicode as its base character set with version
  8.1.  Its internal representation for strings is UTF-8. It supports
  the \uXXXX notation for Unicode characters. See

  6.8.  Perl

  Perl 5.6 stores strings internally in UTF-8 format, if you write

       use utf8;

  at the beginning of your script. length() returns the number of char­
  acters of a string. For details, see the Perl-i18n FAQ at

  Support for other (non-8-bit) encodings is available through the iconv
  interface module

  6.9.  Related reading

  Tomohiro Kubota has written an introduction to internationalization  The emphasis of his
  document is on writing software that runs in any locale, using the
  locale's encoding.

  7.  Other sources of information

  7.1.  Mailing lists

  Broader audiences can be reached at the following mailing lists.

  Note that where I write `at', you should write `@'. (Anti-spam

  7.1.1.  linux-utf8

  Address: linux-utf8 at

  This mailing list is about internationalization with Unicode, and
  covers a broad range of topics from the keyboard driver to the X11

  Archives are at

  To subscribe, send a message to majordomo at with the
  line "subscribe linux-utf8" in the body.

  7.1.2.  li18nux

  Address: linux-i18n at

  This mailing list is focused on organizing internationalization work
  on Linux, and arranging meetings between people.

  To subscribe, fill in the form at and send it
  to linux-i18n-request at

  7.1.3.  unicode

  Address: unicode at

  This mailing list is focused on the standardization and continuing
  development of the Unicode standard, and related technologies, such as
  Bidi and sorting algorithms.

  Archives are at, but they
  are not regularly updated.

  For subscription information, see

  7.1.4.  X11 internationalization

  Address: i18n at

  This mailing list addresses the people who work on better
  internationalization of the X11/XFree86 system.

  Archives are at

  To subscribe, send mail to the friendly person at i18n-request at explaining your motivation.

  7.1.5.  X11 fonts

  Address: fonts at

  This mailing list addresses the people who work on Unicode fonts and
  the font subsystem for the X11/XFree86 system.

  Archives are at

  To subscribe, send mail to the overworked person at fonts-request at explaining your motivation.

Unicode-HOWTO (last edited 2008-12-16 08:36:48 by jdd)